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Permaculture Research Institute of Australia » A Refrigerator th. Sometimes there are simple solutions to universal needs that don’t require coal fired electricity, fossil fuels, or even solar panels or wind turbines.

Permaculture Research Institute of Australia » A Refrigerator th

Around a third of the world’s population have no access to electricity. If you’re like me, you’ve spent your entire life being able to plug in. Permaculture Pros site. YouTube channel. Sustainability Store. Free range. Commercial free range hens A small flock of mixed free-range chickens being fed outdoors.

Free range

Free range denotes a method of farming husbandry where the animals, for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors, rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24-hours each day.[1] On many farms, the outdoors ranging area is fenced, thereby technically making this an enclosure, however, free range systems usually offer the opportunity for extensive locomotion and sunlight prevented by indoor housing systems. Permaculture. Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems.


The term permaculture (as a systematic method) was first coined by David Holmgren, then a graduate student, and his professor, Bill Mollison, in 1978. The word permaculture originally referred to "permanent agriculture", but was expanded to stand also for "permanent culture", as it was understood that social aspects were integral to a truly sustainable system as inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka’s natural farming philosophy.


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