what is money?
Where does the money come from?
The Money Masters
John Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
A house formerly belonging to the Viennese family (Schillersdorf Palace). Schloss Hinterleiten, one of the many palaces built by the Austrian Rothschild dynasty. Donated to charity by the family in 1905. Beatrice de Rothschild's villa on the Côte d'Azur, France The Rothschild family /ˈrɒθs.tʃaɪld/, also known as the Rothschilds, is a family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild, a court Jew to the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel, in the Free City of Frankfurt, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court Jews, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth, and established an international banking dynasty through his five sons, that came even to surpass the most powerful families of the era such as the Barings and the Berenbergs.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank retains reserves in an amount equal to only a portion of the amount of its customers' deposits to satisfy potential demands for withdrawals. Reserves are held at the bank as currency, or as deposits in reflected in the bank's accounts at the central bank. The remainder of customer-deposited funds is used to fund investments or loans that the bank makes to other customers. Most of these loaned funds are later redeposited into other banks, allowing further lending. Because bank deposits are usually considered money in their own right, fractional-reserve banking permits the money supply to grow to a multiple (called the money multiplier) of the underlying reserves of base money originally created by the central bank.
Central bank The primary function of a central bank is to manage the nation's money supply (monetary policy), through active duties such as managing interest rates, setting the reserve requirement, and acting as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of bank insolvency or financial crisis.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (in French, Banque des règlements internationaux (BRI)) is an international organization of central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks". As an international institution, it is not accountable to any single national government. The BIS carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts and through an annual general meeting of all member banks. It also provides banking services, but only to central banks and other international organizations. Bank for International Settlements
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was initiated in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and formally created in 1945 by 29 member countries. The IMF's stated goal was to assist in the reconstruction of the world's international payment system post–World War II. Countries contribute money to a pool through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow funds temporarily. Through this activity and others such as surveillance of its members' economies and the demand for self-correcting policies, the IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907. Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System have expanded and its structure has evolved. Events such as the Great Depression were major factors leading to changes in the system. The U.S.