Philosophy and "thinkers"
Table of Contents abduction (Igor Douven) Abelard [Abailard], Peter (Peter King) Abhidharma (Noa Ronkin) abilities (John Maier) Abner of Burgos (Shalom Sadik) Abrabanel, Judah (Aaron Hughes) abstract objects (Gideon Rosen) accidental properties — see essential vs. accidental properties action (George Wilson and Samuel Shpall) action at a distance — see quantum mechanics: action at a distance in actualism (Christopher Menzel) adaptationism (Steven Hecht Orzack and Patrick Forber) Addams, Jane (Maurice Hamington) Adorno, Theodor W. (Lambert Zuidervaart) advance directives (Agnieszka Jaworska) Aegidius Romanus — see Giles of Rome Aenesidemus — see skepticism: ancient aesthetic, concept of the (James Shelley) aesthetics affirmative action (Robert Fullinwider) Africana Philosophy (Lucius T. Outlaw Jr.)
Today we live in the beginnings of the 21 st century. Probably this may have no specific meaning except as an advancement in history of human beings and a considerable advancement in science and technology. However, upon deep scrutiny one can easily find that the last decade of the 20 th as well as the beginnings of the 21 st centuries are marked with deep and essential transformations of humanity as a whole, on the scientific, social, cultural, and philosophical levels. These essential transformations make it legitimate to depict this period as a completely new phase of humanity.
Taking up again the tradition of the Friesian School , this is a non-peer-reviewed electronic journal and archive of philosophy, inaugurated on line July 6, 1996, four years before the end of the 20th Century , just as the brilliant, courageous, prolific, and little appreciated German philosopher Leonard Nelson (1882-1927) started his Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule, Neue Folge , attempting a "Reformation of Philosophy," four years after the beginning of the 20th Century. The essays at this site, addressing many philosophical, historical, scientific, religious, economic, legal, and political issues, range from the fully annotated and technical to more informal and discursive discussions, often originally written for undergraduate classes. Many items therefore should be intelligible to those not familiar with all the arcana of academic philosophy, or with academic philosophy at all.
First published Fri May 6, 2005; substantive revision Thu Aug 5, 2010 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (born: circa 475–7 C.E., died: 526? C.E.) has long been recognized as one of the most important intermediaries between ancient philosophy and the Latin Middle Ages and, through his Consolation of Philosophy, as a talented literary writer, with a gift for making philosophical ideas dramatic and accessible to a wider public. He had previously translated Aristotle's logical works into Latin, written commentaries on them as well as logical textbooks, and used his logical training to contribute to the theological discussions of the time. All these writings, which would be enormously influential in the Middle Ages, drew extensively on the thinking of Greek Neoplatonists such as Porphyry and Iamblichus.
Santa Maria della Pieve in Arezzo Original lyrics by Petrarch, found in 1985 in Erfurt The Triumph of Death, or The 3 Fates. Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels , ca. 1510–1520).
Emanuel Swedenborg ( listen ; born Emanuel Swedberg ; 29 January 1688 [ 1 ] – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish scientist , philosopher , theologian , revelator, and, in the eyes of some, Christian mystic . [ 2 ] He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion , [ 3 ] a work he published himself. [ 4 ] He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist . In 1741, at the age of 53, he entered into a spiritual phase [ 7 ] in which he began to experience dreams and visions , beginning on Easter weekend of April 6, 1744. This culminated in a 'spiritual awakening', in which he received revelation that he was appointed by the Lord to write a heavenly New Church Doctrine to reform Christianity .
Reincarnation is the religious or philosophical concept that the soul or spirit , after biological death , begins a new life in a new body that may be human, animal or spiritual depending on the moral quality of the previous life's actions. This doctrine is a central tenet of the Indian religions . [ 1 ] It is also a common belief of other religions such as Druidism , Spiritism , Theosophy , and Eckankar and is found in many tribal societies around the world, in places such as Siberia, West Africa, North America, and Australia. [ 2 ]
The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. To look up a philosopher you know the name of, click on the first letter of his or her last name. To find philosophers by core area, field, major philosophical tradition, ethnicity, or time periods, see the subheadings further below.
Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from sensory experience , logical and mathematical treatments is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge, [ 1 ] that there is valid knowledge (truth) only in scientific knowledge. [ 2 ] Verified data received from the senses is known as empirical evidence . [ 1 ] This view, when applied to the social as to the natural sciences , holds that society operates according to general laws like the physical world. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected. Though the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of Western thought, [ 3 ] modern sense of the approach was developed by the philosopher and founding sociologist Auguste Comte in the early 19th century. [ 4 ] Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so also does society. [ 5 ] [ edit ] Etymology
Giving alms to the poor is often considered an altruistic action in many cultures and religions. Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Altruism or selflessness is the opposite of selfishness . Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of duty and loyalty . Altruism is a motivation to provide something of value to a party who must be anyone but one's self, while duty focuses on a moral obligation towards a specific individual (e.g., a god , a king ), or collective (e.g., a government ).
Epicurus ( Greek : Ἐπίκουρος, Epikouros , "ally, comrade"; 341 BCE – 270 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism . Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia —peace and freedom from fear—and aponia —the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are the measures of what is good and evil; death is the end of both body and soul and should therefore not be feared; the gods do not reward or punish humans; the universe is infinite and eternal; and events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space.
Pantheism is the belief that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God, [ 1 ] or that the universe (or nature ) is identical with divinity . [ 2 ] Pantheists thus do not believe in a personal or anthropomorphic god. Pantheism was popularized in the modern era as both a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th century philosopher Baruch Spinoza , [ 3 ] :p.7 whose Ethics was an answer to Descartes ' famous dualist theory that the body and spirit are separate. [ 4 ] Spinoza held the monist view that the two are the same, and monism is a fundamental part of his philosophy. He was described as a "God-intoxicated man," and used the word God to describe the unity of all substance. [ 4 ] Although the term pantheism was not coined until after his death, Spinoza is regarded as its most celebrated advocate. [ 5 ]
European philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western or Occidental world . Historically, the term was recently invented to refer to the philosophical thinking of Western civilization , beginning with Greek philosophy in ancient Greece , and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word philosophy itself originated in ancient Greece: philosophia (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν — philein "to love" and σοφία - sophia, "wisdom" ).
Social philosophy is the philosophical study of questions about social behavior (typically, of humans ). Social philosophy addresses a wide range of subjects, from individual meanings to legitimacy of laws, from the social contract to criteria for revolution , from the functions of everyday actions to the effects of science on culture , from changes in human demographics [ edit ] Subdisciplines There is often a considerable overlap between the questions addressed by social philosophy and ethics or value theory . Other forms of social philosophy include political philosophy and jurisprudence , which are largely concerned with the societies of state and government and their functioning.
The philosophy of science is concerned with all the assumptions, foundations, methods , implications of science , and with the use and merit of science. This discipline sometimes overlaps metaphysics , ontology and epistemology , viz., when it explores whether scientific results comprise a study of truth . In addition to these central problems of science as a whole, many philosophers of science consider problems that apply to particular sciences (e.g. philosophy of biology or philosophy of physics ). Some philosophers of science also use contemporary results in science to reach conclusions about philosophy.