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Real-time Transport Protocol. The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over IP networks.

Real-time Transport Protocol

RTP is used extensively in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications, television services and web-based push-to-talk features. RTP is used in conjunction with the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP). SOCKS. SOCKS performs at Layer 5 of the OSI model (the session layer, an intermediate layer between the presentation layer and the transport layer).


History[edit] The protocol was originally developed/designed by David Koblas, a system administrator of MIPS Computer Systems. After MIPS was taken over by Silicon Graphics in 1992, Koblas presented a paper on SOCKS at that year's Usenix Security Symposium, making SOCKS publicly available.[1] The protocol was extended to version 4 by Ying-Da Lee of NEC. The SOCKS reference architecture and client are owned by Permeo Technologies,[2] a spin-off from NEC. (Blue Coat Systems bought out Permeo Technologies.)[3][4] Usage[edit] OSI model.

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI Model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard of their underlying internal structure and technology.

OSI model

Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path.

Trend Micro. Trend Micro Inc.

Trend Micro

(TYO: 4704) (Japanese: トレンドマイクロ株式会社 Torendo Maikuro Kabushiki-Gaisha; Chinese: 趨勢科技) is a Japanese security software company. It is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan and markets Trend Micro Internet Security, Trend Micro Worry-Free Business Security, OfficeScan, and other related security products and services. Eva Chen has been CEO for the company since 2005 succeeding Steve Chang, who is now Chairman. Trend Micro competes in the antivirus industry against Avira, BitDefender, BullGuard, F-Secure, Frisk, Kaspersky, McAfee, Panda Security, Sophos, Symantec, among others. Trend Micro is also a certificate authority and member of the CA/Browser Forum, the industry standards group founded by Melih Abdulhayoğlu of the Comodo Group,.[2] History[edit] Foundation[edit] In 1992, Trend Micro took over a Japanese software firm to form Trend Micro Devices and established headquarters in Japan.

HijackThis. HijackThis, algunas veces abreviado como HJT, es una herramienta popular gratuita, creada por Merijn Bellekom y posteriormente vendida a Trend Micro, que ayuda al usuario a detectar software malicioso para los sistemas Microsoft Windows.


El 28 de diciembre de 2011, cambio su licencia de Freeware a GNU General Public License liberando el código a la comunidad. El programa está actualmente en la versión 2.0.4. Su potencial principal está en la capacidad de detectar rápidamente los métodos de Browser Hijacking que suelen utilizar software de tipo malware, en lugar de recurrir a una base de datos actualizada de virus y spyware como la mayoría de antivirus y software destinado a la eliminación de éstos.Hijackthis no autodetecta ni elimina spyware como popularmente se cree, sino que puede ayudar al usuario experto a detectarlo, siendo no recomendable el uso por usuarios inexpertos debido al riesgo de borrar software vital del sistema.

IP address. The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number[1] and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today.

IP address

However, because of the growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995.[3] IPv6 was standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998,[4] and its deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as (IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (IPv6).

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and delegates five regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities. IP versions Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use: IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. IPv4 addresses. Broadcast address. A broadcast address is a logical address at which all devices connected to a multiple-access communications network are enabled to receive datagrams.

Broadcast address

A message sent to a broadcast address is typically received by all network-attached hosts, rather than by a specific host. IP networking[edit] In Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) networks, broadcast addresses are formed by a distinguished value for the host identification field, traditionally called the rest field, of an IP address.[1] The all-ones rest field was established in RFC 919 as the standard broadcast address for networks that support broadcast.

Datagram. A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network in which the delivery, arrival time, and order of arrival are not guaranteed by the network.


History[edit] “The inspiration for datagrams had two sources. One was Donald Davies' studies. He had done some simulation of datagram networks, although he had not built any, and it looked technically viable. The second inspiration was I like things simple. These concepts were later adopted for the creation of the Internet Protocol (IP) and other network protocols. Definition[edit] Subnetwork. Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier A subnetwork, or subnet, is a logical, visible subdivision of an IP network.[1] The practice of dividing a network into two or more networks is called subnetting.


The routing prefix is expressed in CIDR notation. It is written as the first address of a network, followed by a slash character (/), and ending with the bit-length of the prefix. For example, is the prefix of the Internet Protocol Version 4 network starting at the given address, having 24 bits allocated for the network prefix, and the remaining 8 bits reserved for host addressing. How to run Control Panel tools by typing a command. This article was previously published under Q192806 This article describes how to run Control Panel tools in Windows by typing a command at a command prompt or in the Open box.

How to run Control Panel tools by typing a command

To run a Control Panel tool in Windows, type the appropriate command in the Open box or at a command prompt. NOTE: If you want to run a command from a command prompt, you must do so from the Windows folder. Also, note that your computer may not have all of the tools listed in this article, as your Windows installation may not include all of these components. NOTE: The Scanners and Cameras applet (sticpl.cpl) cannot be run in Windows Millennium. Windows substitutes the name of the tool you want to run for %1%. S BootCD 15.2 - All in one Bootable CD » - Aurora. Antivirus Tools Avira AntiVir Personal Free anti-virus and anti-spyware on-demand scanner, detects and removes more than 50000 viruses and trojans.

ComboFix Designed to cleanup malware infections and restore settings modified by malware. GMER 1.0.15 Hidden services, hidden registry, hidden file scanner, Rootkit Detector and Remover. Remove Fake Antivirus 1.82 Tool to remove virus/malware which disguises itself to be an antivirus and produces fake alert/warnings and urge you to purchase a useless copy of the fake antivirus.