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The concentration of humans – in some cases judged as too high, in others not high enough – and the problems connected to this, have resulted in discussions on density. Prior to the 20th century, density in European cities was merely an outcome of complex circumstances. During the second half of the 19th century, high densities in industrializing cities were argued to be one of the major causes of fires, diseases and social turmoil.
When you think of high density housing what comes to mind? Crowding? Monotony? Too much asphalt and not enough green? No privacy? These are some of the negative characteristics that people often associate with high-density development.
20 Outstanding & Outrageous Concept Cars from the Golden Age Article by Steve , filed under Vintage & Retro in the Technology category. A map of the history of the auto industry would show dozens, if not hundreds of roads not traveled.
Urban growth generates nowadays patterns, which look rather irregular. Planning policy regrets the lack of compactness and density of these agglomerations, but controlling urban sprawl turns out to be difficult. Obviously a new type of spatial organisation emerges, which is rather the result of a self-organisation process to which a high number of social agents contribute. In the present contribution we focus on the use of fractal geometry which turned out to be a powerful instrument for describing the morphology of these patterns. After an introduction about the context of research, fractal models are presented, which serve as reference models for better understanding the spatial organisation of settlement patterns.
The Star today published a cover story ( Beyond Density ) in their Condos section on the efforts in Mississauga to create a more vibrant and pedestrian-friendly downtown – key among the problems identified has been the large scale of the block patterns in Mississauga – to prove the point the article includes urban form/fabric drawings of 9 cities (one hopes at the same scales) in order to compare the scales of the fabric of the street network. I include the drawings below alphabetically (with Mississauga first). (edit: a friend requested I lay out all the drawings in a grid for easier comparison – I hope you enjoy – click on the above image for a larger version)
Gentrification is a dynamic that emerges in poor urban areas when residential shifts, urban planning, and other phenomena affect the composition of a neighborhood. [ 1 ] Urban gentrification often involves population migration as poor residents of a neighborhood are displaced. In a community undergoing gentrification, the average income increases and average family size decreases. This generally results in the displacement of the poorer, pre-gentrification residents, who are unable to pay increased rents , and property taxes , or afford real estate . Often old industrial buildings are converted to residences and shops. New businesses, which can afford increased commercial rent, cater to a more affluent base of consumers—further increasing the appeal to higher income migrants and decreasing the accessibility to the poor.
Urban density is a term used in urban planning and urban design to refer to the number of people inhabiting a given urbanized area . As such it is to be distinguished from other measures of population density . Urban density is considered an important factor in understanding how cities function. Research related to urban density occurs across diverse areas, including economics, health, innovation, psychology and geography as well as sustainability .
Links to the 'context', 'choice' and 'custodianship' components of the seven Cs (Urban Design Protocol). What is density? Density is the concentration of population and activity in an urban area.
In our research, the concept of density is used to construct a bridge between formal and quantitative properties of urban areas. Many of the established uses of density lack spatial precision and are unsatisfactorily for describing and prescribing urban form. Only when density is seen as a composite of aspects, such as intensity, compactness, height, and spaciousness can it be satisfactorily used to differentiate between urban fabrics, understand their characteristics, and design guidelines for future developments. We choose to define density as a multi-variable phenomenon. The variables used are FSI, GSI, N, OSR and L.
The Death and Life of Great American Cities is a 1961 book by writer and activist Jane Jacobs . The book is a critique of 20th century urban planning policy, which it says was responsible for the decline of many city neighborhoods in the United States. [ 1 ] Going against the common wisdom of the age, deemed a combination of the Radiant City , Garden city , and City Beautiful movements, it proposes new ideas that it says would ensure organic vibrancy in urban America. [ edit ] Contents Reserving her most vitriolic criticism for the " rationalist " planners (specifically Robert Moses ) of the 1950s and 1960s, Jacobs argued that modernist urban planning rejects the city, because it rejects human beings living in a community characterized by layered complexity and seeming chaos. The modernist planners used deductive reasoning to find principles by which to plan cities.
International Urban Areas: Transport & the Environment Cost of Smart Growth Revisited The Costs of Sprawl Reconsidered: What the Data Really Show (with Joshua Utt) Overselling Local Street Grids - Commentary by Wendell Cox (20050603) American Dream Boundaries: Comparing Portland & Atlanta (200106150) Costs of Sprawl Reconsidered: Response to Victoria Transport Policy Institute (20040810) Costs of Sprawl Measured in Benefits? (20040810) Colorado Springs Sprawls Less than Portland (20040807) Providence: Least Sprawling Metropolitan Area in the USA (20040807) David Rusk's City Elasticity Hypothesis: Measuring Happenstance (20000206) "Fidel Gives Us Candy": Of Charettes, Visioning and Contrivance (20040606) Portland's N.W. 23rd --- Not a Model (20031224)
Sprawl is bad. Density is good. Americans need to stop spreading out and live closer together. Well that's the theory, anyway. But, as anyone who has tried to build compact development recently will tell you, if there's one thing Americans hate more than sprawl, it's density. This is evident in the public planning process as regulations are written and projects are reviewed.
Density Using Land Area For States, Counties, Metropolitan Areas, and Places American FactFinder tables (Census 2000 Summary File 1, 100-Percent Data) The source of the following table is 2000 Census of Population and Housing, "Population and Housing Unit Counts," PHC-3-1.