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What we need to learn about Environmental Science Studies? Hot Topics, Programs to stop Earth Environment from Degradation. - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. Environmental science is fundamentally cross-disciplinary in nature. No other science is enough deeply connected with our life of the widest cross section of people, viz-a-viz farmers, manufacturers, physicians, administrators, politicians, businessmen, students of all studies in the higher education such as architecture, medicine, public hygiene, forestry or pupils in the schools at all levels.

People must be made aware of the deteriorating environment around our homes, hospitals, public places, water courses, theaters and about some of the wrongful human activity and lifestyle practices which have to change if we are to improve the quality of our environment and prevent our fast depleting natural resources, so vital to support life. Why do we need to learn from Environmental Science Studies? We have promptly robbed off the global environment resources of fertile land, minerals, fossil fuels, air, water, wildlife, and biodiversities. Environmental Degradation Problem. Landscape Ecology definition and structures. Human and Natural Impact on Landscapes. - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. What does landscape means? Landscapes are the most natural form of the environment. The father of Landscape ecologyCarl Troll (1971) defines landscapes as totally natural and human living space. It may be formed out of a continuous forest, a treeless farmland, lowland, hill country, mountains, valleys, urbanized area and industrialized area richly varied farmland, nature reserves wild landscapes etc.

Ecological Definition of Landscape Today, Landscape management is influenced by people's perception of the environment. In the British Isles, the landscape has been formed by the interplay of human and physical variables. Landscape are living habitat for all organisms-humans, their population, communities, and ecosystem. Human Impact on Landscapes:- Human influences such as afforestation, reservoirs, grazing, improved pasture Natural impact on Landscapes:- Physical influences such as altitude, degree of slope, thin leached soil, exposure to strong winds etc.

Spoilage of Landscape due to Waste Accumulation. Control Measures | Impact and Causes on Terrestrial Life - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. Landscapes have often been subject to human intervention and pressure which may tend to deflect succession to form a plagioclimax community. This may lead to spoilage of landscape due to waste accumulation. The African savanna was once a forest but was cleared by farmers for agriculture, the soils in these areas were further impoverished by this activity and now the soil can only support grasses and shrubs that are tolerant of drought and fire.

A fact that is important here is the spoilage of soil by waste accumulation which can no more support tree species for a regeneration of forest as a climatic climax community. Misuse or over-utilization of land or improper agriculture and other practices like overgrazing, shifting cultivation, forest exploitation, Intensive agriculture and urbanization have brought environmental degradation and undue pressure on land. Control measures to save Landscapes from human Spoilage Drainage and erosion Keep subsurface drainage system Open and operating.

How to create Natural Green Funeral Burial Sites/Grounds? Eco-friendly Biodegradable Coffins - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. Tips To create eco-friendly funeral sites Avoid using burial as a disposal method if a shallow water exists, less than 6 feet in depth.Cover the carcasses with at least 6 inches of compacted soil.Do not use highly reactive chemicals to prevent decomposition.Protect obsequies site, to avoid disturbance from equipment or animals. Composting - Maintain a complete cover of sawdust or other bulking agents.Ground compost facilities to allow for 24-hours, all weather access.Establish an impermeable base.Protect compost piles from precipitation.Provide for leachate and run-off control.Use appropriate cleaning procedures on transportation vehicles.Maintain suitable access to composting material (sawdust) storage. These steps will help you to create green funeral sites for dead animals and help them to decompose with the most natural way to create natural burial grounds.

Avoid these practices, an invitation for diseases.. Green Ecofriendly Coffins - Different Types of Ecosystems in the World | Natural, Man-made or Artificial - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. There are two broad types of ecosystems in the World i.e Natural and Artificial Ecosystems. The natural type of ecosystems is those that prevail in nature, like pond, stream, lake, sea, ocean, coral reef, grassland, dryland, desert, Arctic circle, mountain ecosystem etc. Natural Ecosystems Natural ecosystems are categorized as further two different types of ecosystems; Terrestrial and Aquatic.

Forest, grassland, dryland, tundra, tropical rainforest are some of the natural terrestrials ecosystems in World.Pond, stream river are some of the freshwater aquatic ecosystems; while sea, ocean, brackish lake coral reef are marine aquatic ecosystems. Artificial Ecosystems Artificial types of ecosystems are manmade and simple such as an aquarium or a crop field. Natural ecosystems are self-regulating dynamic systems without any direct human manipulation or interference. Contribution of Semi-arid Ecosystems Area, Climate, Region in Ecology | Arthor George Tansley (1891-1955) - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes.

Arid and semi-arid ecosystems involve the study of living things and their relationship with their environment i.e climate, region (land like desert) rather than just looking at individual types of plants and animals. The living things (biotic) are the green plants, animals, bacteria fungi etc and their environment (abiotic) constitutes the earth, air, water, minerals and compounds such as Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide and others, both influencing each other which is necessary to maintain life. The composition of biotic and abiotic phases are the building blocks of an arid ecosystem area. Professor Arthor George Tansley (1891-1955) a renowned British ecologist first proposed the term 'ecosystem' in the year 1935 and defined it as the “System resulting from the integration of all living and non-living factors of the environment”. His contribution is great in a semi-arid ecosystem. Every ecosystem must have a STRUCTURE and a FUNCTION. Producer Plants and Vegetation of Semi-arid Region in Indian Ecosystem | Climate Zone, Lands - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes.

The ecosystem in a semi-arid region in India has low erratic rainfall. The dominant producer plants are mostly annual plants which manage (therophytes) to avoid drought by passing the dry period as dormant seeds. This vegetation also persists by means of underground storage organs. Xerophytic shrubs and stem succulents are adapted to tolerate drought. The proportion of plant life forms in semi-arid ecosystems is nearly 26 percent phanerophytes (woody plants with buds above soil surface) nearly 18 percent hemicryptophytes (herbs with buds at soil levels) 6 percent cryptophytes (herbs with buds below the soil surface) and 41 percent therophytes.

Seeding or planting of fodder grasses, shrubs and trees in semi-arid ecosystems have been tried to re-green it, such as Atriplex, Acacia, Prosopis, Salsola which are well adapted to dry conditions. Producer Plants in Semi-arid Semi-arid Zones Stylosanthes hamata is recommended for semi-arid zone in Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and Madhya Pradesh. Consumers. Introduction in Conservation of Forest and Wildlife | Importance and Protection of Forest Habitat - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. Conservation is the protection of something which people perceive as being of value. It may be a conservation of forest and wildlife or any particular species. By the time of June 1992 Earth Summit in Rio-de-Janeiro (Brazil), countries had developed a series of principles for forest conservation and its sustainable use. The Rio statement says the forest with their complex ecological processes, are essential to economic development and the maintenance of all forms of life.

Forests are the source of wood, food and medicine and rich storehouses of several biological products yet to be discovered. Forest effects on causing rainfall are important. Forest annihilation adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, triggering a rise in global temperature. They act as reservoirs of water and carbon that would otherwise get into the atmosphere and act as a greenhouse gas. Steps Taken to Conserve Forest and Wildlife Different Ways To Conserve Wildlife and Forest Regional Forest Conservation. Objectives of Joint Forest Management Programme in India - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. Joint forest Management (JFM) - The galloping rate of depletion of India's forest resources is a serious problem. Sustaining the forest resource base against the growing human and livestock population pressures, industrialization, urbanization, and overall economic development have earned a priority among the joint forest management regimens.

Apart from developmental pressure, the dependence of forest user groups is a crucial factor in the state of Indian forests. Forest conservation priorities cannot be determined in isolation from local people. This must be complemented by policies promoting sustainable and equitable development of the forest resource base as a whole. In acknowledgment of the above factor, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, on 1 June 1990 issued policy guidelines for the involvement of village communities and voluntary agencies in the regeneration of degraded forest lands, under Joint Forest Management Programme (JFM). Sustainable Timber Management Plans | Forestry Practices - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. Steps Taken For Afforestation and Restoration By Govt. - Causes, Goals and Plans - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes.

Afforestation has been a serious concern in the past couple of years over the diminishing forest shelter in India. The total geographical area of 640 million hectares in India, forest occupies only 70 million hectares that are only 18 percent. Recommended forest cover by UNESCO is 34 percent of the geographical area. Govt of Bihar and MP have shown gross negligence where forest lands have been diverted for development projects like establishing hydroelectric projects and heavy industries. In the re-greening process 4.5 lakh hectare was to be covered by compensatory afforestation, but barely 2.10 lakh hectare has been greened. There has been a need to involve local communities and the Panchayats in a greening process. A 'van mukhiya' is nominated in each Panchayat and the best Panchayat awarded a cash incentive.

The 2 major goals of afforestation are: 1) Supply of goods and services to people and industry with a well-thought plan of production. Agroforestry meaning with proper definition and their advantages - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. It is a modified version of social forestry. Agroforestry is a system of land use where woody perennials are purposefully used on the same land where annual agricultural crops or animals or both are grown sequentially with the aim of obtaining greater outputs on a sustained basis.

This, in fact, an ancient land use practice, where the same land is used for agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry. 1. Responds to population pressure. 2. It conserves the environment. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Social Agroforestry Tree Species in India | System Impact Factors and Practices - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. The objective of social Agroforestry in India is to grow fast growing tree species and to raise plantation which is commercially valuable on all land other than traditional forestry practice available. The trees could provide firewood for the local population, fodder for cattle, pulpwood for the paper industry and act as windbreaks or shelterbelts as in the desert ecosystems.

Social Agroforestry also encourages people's participation on a large scale to create a human interest in preventing the forest from destruction. Greening Mother Earth every inch and making it productive is the concept of Social Forestry. Social forestry includes plantation on a village, private and government lands roadsides, canal banks and on land unsuitable for agriculture. It helps create plant resource genetic banks, nurseries and recreation parks. Bring in native or non-native species of plants that provide not only timber but fodder and soil fertility by nitrogen fixation. Methods of Conservation of Forests Resources and Wildlife by Management - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. Joint Forest management, Afforestation Social Forestry. Public awareness programs concerning water, soil, air forest and other resources. Public Awareness Program towards Conservation of Forests, Water, Soil, Air and other resources.

Many people do not understand the close ties between human and the environment. There is a need to increase people's sensitivity and involvement in finding a solution for environment and development programs. Education can present people with environmental and ethical awareness, values, attitudes, skills, and behavior needed for conservation of natural resources, water, soil, air, forests etc leading to a sustainable development. We must involve school children and college students in environmental health, safe drinking water, sanitation, food, forests, and wildlife. We must also set up training programs for industry, universities, non-government organization (N60) and village-level workers to train people in environmental management.

Film Show and Media. How Can Overgrazing Lead To Soil Erosion | How to minimize Overgrazing? - Environmental Science Studies - Issues, Affects, Causes. When insufficient amounts of grass litter are left in the soil, the soil organisms die and then the soil loses fertility. If grass cover is sparse, raindrops erode the surface. It is a common practice that leads to desertification. Conservation Grassland To Check Soil Erosion Soil erosion threatens our agricultural use throughout the world.

Soil can lose ts nutrients and soil biota. In Africa, soil erosion and degradation are due to overgrazing, whereas in North America it is due to agriculture. The devastation of Greece had two causes: 1. North Africa once a granary of the Roman Empire, turned into a grassiness continent due to overgrazing. Minimize overgrazing effects on Environment by these practices: Grow more of mat grass which is unpalatable to sheep.Grow more of fine grass which sheep do not prefer to eat.

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