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Freud

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Tartini Violin Sonata in G minor ''Devil's Trill Sonata''. Karl Popper & Major Claims. Should we believe this, and how well does it fit with our modern science? Freud: You Might Not. 3. Foundations: Freud.

Freud did not publish the reasons that led to his abandoning the seduction theory in 1897–1898. For these we have to turn to a letter he wrote to his confidant Wilhelm Fliess dated 21 September 1897. First, he referred to his inability to “bring a single analysis to a real conclusion” and "the absence of complete successes" on which he had counted. Second, he wrote of his “surprise that in all cases, the father, not excluding my own, had to be accused of being perverse" if he were to be able to maintain the theory; and the "realization of the unexpected frequency of hysteria… whereas surely such widespread perversions against children are not very probable." Third, Freud referred to indications that, he argued, the unconscious is unable to distinguish fact from fiction. In the unconscious there is no sign of reality, so one cannot differentiate between the truth and the fiction invested with feeling. Fourth, Freud wrote of his belief that in deep-reaching psychosis, unconscious memories do break through to the conscious, "so the secret of childhood experiences is not disclosed even in the most confused delirium."[23] (In the same letter Freud wrote that his loss of faith in his theory would remain known only to himself and Fliess,[24] and in fact he did not make known his abandonment of the theory publicly until 1906.[25]) The collapse of the seduction theory led in 1897 to the emergence of Freud's new theory of infantile sexuality. The impulses, fantasies and conflicts that Freud claimed to have uncovered beneath the neurotic symptoms of his patients derived not from external contamination, he now believed, but from the mind of the child itself. There were some serious negative consequences of this shift. The most obvious negative consequence was that a limited interpretation of Freud's theory of infantile sexuality would cause some therapists and others to deny reported sexual abuse as fantasy; a situation that has given rise to much criticism (e.g. The Freudian Coverup by social worker Florence Rush). However, without the rejection of the seduction theory, concepts such as the unconscious, repressions, the repetition compulsion, transference and resistance, and the unfolding psychosexual stages of childhood would never have been added to human knowledge.[26] An alternative view involves the recognition that the notion of unconscious mental processes was commonplace before Freud started writing on the subject.[27] Moreover, the skepticism of almost all non-Freudian psychiatrists and psychologists towards Freud's psychosexual stages of childhood is that it is not consistent with much of current informed opinion.[28] – seanmhines