False flag has its origins in naval warfare where the use of a flag other than the belligerent's true battle flag as a ruse de guerre , before engaging an enemy, has long been acceptable. It is also acceptable in certain circumstances in land warfare, to deceive enemies in similar ways providing that the deception is not perfidious and all such deceptions are discarded before opening fire upon the enemy. Covert military or paramilitary operations designed to deceive in such a way that the operations appear as though they are being carried out by other entities may be described as being carried out under a false flag or black flag . Operations carried during peace-time by civilian organisation, as well as covert government agencies, may by extension be called false flag operations if they seek to hide the real organisation behind an operation.
Nazism , or National Socialism ( German : Nationalsozialismus ) in full, was the ideology of the Nazi Party in Germany and related movements outside Germany. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] It is a variety of fascism that incorporates biological racism and antisemitism . [ 6 ] Nazism developed in Germany from the influence of the far-right racist Völkisch German nationalist movement and the anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary culture which fought against the communists in post- World War I Germany. [ 7 ] The German Nazi Party and its affiliates in Germanic states supported pan-Germanicism . [ 8 ] It was designed to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. [ 9 ] Major elements of Nazism have been described as far-right , such as allowing domination of society by people deemed racially superior, while purging society of people declared inferior, who were said to be a threat to national survival. [ 10 ]
Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin incident (or the USS Maddox incident ) is the name given to two separate confrontations, one actual and one false, involving North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin . On August 2, 1964, the destroyer USS Maddox , while performing a signals intelligence patrol as part of DESOTO operations, engaged three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats of the 135th Torpedo Squadron. [ 1 ] A sea battle resulted, in which the Maddox expended over two hundred and eighty 3-inch and 5-inch shells, and in which four USN F-8 Crusader jet fighter bombers strafed the torpedo boats. One US aircraft was damaged, one 14.5 mm round hit the destroyer, three North Vietnamese torpedo boats were damaged, and four North Vietnamese sailors were killed and six were wounded; there were no U.S. casualties. [ 5 ] The second Tonkin Gulf incident was originally claimed by the U.S.
Vietnam War The Vietnam War ( Vietnamese : Chiến tranh Việt Nam) was a Cold War -era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam , Laos , and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 [ A 1 ] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam , supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam , supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries. [ 28 ] The Viet Cong (also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist common front directed by the North, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The Vietnam People's Army (North Vietnamese Army) engaged in a more conventional war , at times committing large units into battle. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces , artillery , and airstrikes .
The collapse of the two World Trade Center towers and the nearby WTC7 (in this photo, the brown building to the left of the towers) is a major focus of 9/11 conspiracy theories. 9/11 conspiracy theories are conspiracy theories that disagree with the widely accepted account that the September 11 attacks were perpetrated solely by al-Qaeda , [ 1 ] without any detailed advanced knowledge on the part of any government agency. [ 2 ] Proponents of these conspiracy theories claim there are inconsistencies in the official conclusions, or evidence which was overlooked. [ 3 ] In a 2008 global poll of 16,063 people in 17 countries, majorities in only nine countries believe al Qaeda was behind the attacks. 46% of those surveyed believed al-Qaeda was responsible for the attacks, 15% believed the U.S. government was responsible, 7% believed Israel was and another 7% believed some other perpetrator, other than al-Qaeda , was responsible.
The Iraq War [ nb 1 ] was an armed conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. [ 40 ] The first was an invasion of Ba'athist Iraq starting on 20 March 2003 by an invasion force led by the United States . [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] It was followed by a longer phase of fighting, in which an insurgency emerged to oppose coallition forces and the newly formed Iraqi government. [ 40 ] The U.S. completed its withdrawal of military personnel in December 2011. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] However, the Iraqi insurgency continues and has caused thousands of fatalities in 2012.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who was the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009 [ 4 ] and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. The eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush , he was born in New Haven, Connecticut . After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, Bush worked in oil businesses. He married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter. George W. Bush
Dick Cheney Richard Bruce " Dick " Cheney [ 1 ] (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who was the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, under President George W. Bush . Born in Lincoln, Nebraska , Cheney was primarily raised in Sumner, Nebraska , and Casper, Wyoming . [ 2 ] He began his political career as an intern for Congressman William A.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is an American politician and businessman. Rumsfeld served as the 13th Secretary of Defense from 1975 to 1977 under President Gerald Ford , and as the 21st Secretary of Defense from 2001 to 2006 under President George W. Bush . He is both the youngest and the oldest person to have served as Secretary of Defense. Donald Rumsfeld
The War in Afghanistan began on 7 October 2001, [ 18 ] when the armed forces of the United States , the United Kingdom , Australia , France , and the Afghan United Front (Northern Alliance) launched Operation Enduring Freedom . The U.S. organized the operation in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11 in the United States. The objective of the invasion was to dismantle the Al Qaeda organization and end its use of Afghanistan as a base. The U.S. also intended to remove the fundamentalist Taliban regime from power in Afghanistan. The Taliban protected Al Qaeda and had refused to arrest Osama bin Laden for his ordering of the September 11 terrorist attacks. War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
Opium production in Afghanistan Harvested poppy capsules. Afghanistan opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2007 (hectares) Afghanistan has been the greatest illicit opium producer in the entire world, ahead of Burma (Myanmar), the " Golden Triangle ", and Latin America since 1992, excluding the year 2001. [ 1 ] Afghanistan is the main producer of opium in the " Golden Crescent ".
Iran Coordinates : Iran ( i / ɪ ˈ r ɑː n / [ 8 ] or / aɪ ˈ r æ n / ; [ 9 ] Persian : ایران [ʔiˈɾɒn] ( listen ) ), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( Persian : جمهوری اسلامی ایران , Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ), is a country in Western Asia . [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] The name " Iran ", which in Persian means "Land of the Aryans ", has been in native use since the Sassanian era , in antiquity . It came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia ( pron.: / ˈ p ɜr ʒ ə / or / ˈ p ɜr ʃ ə / ). [ 9 ] [ 13 ] Both "Persia" and "Iran" are used interchangeably in cultural contexts; however, "Iran" is the name used officially in political contexts. [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
Death of Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden , the founder and head of the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda , was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011, shortly after 1 am local time [ 1 ] [ 2 ] by Navy SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six). The operation, code-named Operation Neptune Spear , was carried out in a Central Intelligence Agency -led operation. In addition to DEVGRU, participating units included the U.S. Army Special Operations Command 's 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) and CIA operatives. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The raid on bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad , Pakistan, was launched from Afghanistan . [ 5 ] After the raid, U.S. forces took bin Laden's body to Afghanistan for identification, then buried it at sea within 24 hours of his death. [ 6 ]
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden ( pron.: / oʊ ˈ s ɑː m ə b ɪ n m oʊ ˈ h ɑː m ɨ d b ɪ n ə ˈ w ɑː d b ɪ n ˈ l ɑː d ən / ; Arabic : أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن , ʾUsāmah bin Muḥammad bin ʿAwaḍ bin Lādin ; March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011) was the founder of al-Qaeda , the militant Islamist organization that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] He was a member of the wealthy Saudi bin Laden family , and an ethnic Yemeni Kindite . [ 8 ] He was born in the bin Laden family to billionaire Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden in Saudi Arabia. He studied there in college until 1979, when he joined the mujahideen forces in Pakistan against the Soviets in Afghanistan . Osama bin Laden
Al-Qaeda ( pron.: / æ l ˈ k aɪ d ə / al- KY -də ; Arabic : القاعدة al-qāʿidah , Arabic: [ælqɑːʕɪdɐ] , translation: "The Base" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida and sometimes al-Qa'ida ) is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden at some point between August 1988 [ 15 ] and late 1989, [ 16 ] with its origins being traceable to the Soviet War in Afghanistan . [ 17 ] It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army [ 18 ] and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad and a strict interpretation of sharia law . It has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations Security Council , NATO , the European Union , the United Kingdom, the United States, and various other countries (see below ). Al-Qaeda has carried out several attacks on non-Muslims, [ 19 ] [ 20 ] and other targets it considers kafir . [ 21 ] al-Qaeda
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab
A Noble Lie: Oklahoma City 1995 (2011