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Kardashev scale. The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to utilize.[1] The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III.

Kardashev scale

A Type I civilization uses only resources available on its home planet, Type II harnesses all needed energy from its local star, and Type III of its galaxy.[2] The scale is only hypothetical, but it puts energy consumption in a cosmic perspective. It was first proposed in 1964 by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. Various extensions of the scale have been proposed since, from a wider range of power levels (types 0, IV and V) to the use of metrics other than pure power. Definition[edit] Type I "Technological level close to the level presently attained on earth, with energy consumption at ≈4×1019 erg/sec (4 × 1012 watts) Type II Type III "A civilization in possession of energy on the scale of its own galaxy, with energy consumption at ≈4×1044 erg/sec.

Image Archive: Spacecraft. AURA Study of Future Space-Based Telescopes. Return to Homepage AURA Study of Future Space-Based Telescopes January 21, 2015 The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy has convened a group to investigate the possibilities for a next generation flagship UV-optical-NIR space telescope.

AURA Study of Future Space-Based Telescopes

The committee, chaired by Julianne Dalcanton and Sara Seager, is exploring whether a single mission could meet the science goals of both the exoplanet and the general astronomy communities. The scientists, instrumentalists, and engineers on the committee are currently identifying high-value science opportunities and using these to narrow down the landscape of possible mission concepts and required technology investments. HubbleSite - Out of the ordinary...out of this world. What Would an Interstellar Spaceship Look Like? Project Icarus is an ambitious five-year study into launching an unmanned spacecraft to an interstellar destination.

What Would an Interstellar Spaceship Look Like?

Headed by the Tau Zero Foundation and British Interplanetary Society, a non-profit group of scientists dedicated to interstellar spaceflight, Icarus is working to develop a spacecraft that can travel to a nearby star. In Part 1 of this two-part article, Kelvin Long, Design Lead for the Project Icarus Vehicle Configuration, describes the design constraints that were placed on the original Project Daedalus interstellar spacecraft.

WIDE ANGLE: Project Icarus: Reaching for Interstellar Space. Spaceplasma: Understanding Galaxies: An... Galaxy nomenclature. Galaxies contain varying numbers of planets, star systems, star clusters and types of interstellar clouds.

Galaxy nomenclature

In between these objects is a sparse interstellar medium of gas, dust, and cosmic rays. Supermassive black holes reside at the center of most galaxies. They are thought to be the primary driver of active galactic nuclei found at the core of some galaxies. The Milky Way galaxy is known to harbor at least one such object.[5] Galaxies have been historically categorized according to their apparent shape, usually referred to as their visual morphology. Etymology[edit] The word galaxy derives from the Greek term for our own galaxy, galaxias (γαλαξίας, "milky one"), or kyklos ("circle") galaktikos ("milky")[11] for its appearance as a lighter colored band in the sky. In the astronomical literature, the capitalized word 'Galaxy' is used to refer to our galaxy, the Milky Way, to distinguish it from the billions of other galaxies.

Nomenclature[edit] Observation history[edit] Milky Way[edit] List of Messier objects. The Messier objects are a set of astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his "Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles" ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters"), originally published in 1771, with the last addition (based on Messier's observations) made in 1966.[1] Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them.

List of Messier objects

The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.[2] The first edition included 45 objects, with Messier's final list totaling 103 objects. However, Messier 102 was not reported correctly, bringing the total to 102 objects.

Messier objects[edit] Open cluster Globular cluster Nebula Planetary nebula Supernova remnant Galaxy Other. Galaxies. COSMOS: A Spacetime odyssey. Chariots of the gods documentary. This video is currently unavailable.

chariots of the gods documentary

Sorry, this video is not available on this device. by $author Share this playlist Cancel Play Pause Replay Stop live playback Playlist Next Previous Loop Shuffle Expand Collapse Like Dislike Full screen Exit full screen Share. Universe or Multiverse Documentary. Through the wormhole. Astronomy Photographer of the Year : Exhibitions redirect : Visit. Take home the best of Astronomy Photographer of the Year The Royal Observatory has partnered with Collins to produce a beautiful hardback book featuring all the winning and shortlisted images from the 2013 Astronomy Photographer of the Year competition.

Astronomy Photographer of the Year : Exhibitions redirect : Visit

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