Welcome to Maryville College. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Origin The IPA was first published in 1888 by the Association Phonétique Internationale (International Phonetic Association), a group of French language teachers founded by Paul Passy.
The aim of the organisation was to devise a system for transcribing the sounds of speech which was independent of any particular language and applicable to all languages. A phonetic script for English created in 1847 by Isaac Pitman and Henry Ellis was used as a model for the IPA. Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400) "The Canterbury Tales" (in middle e. A Concise Dictionary of Middle English by A. L. Mayhew and Walte. The Geoffrey Chaucer Website Homepage.
This site provides materials for Harvard University's Chaucer classes in the Core Program, the English Department, and the Division of Continuing Education.
(Others of course are welcome to use it.) It provides a wide range of glossed Middle English texts and translations of analogues relevant to Chaucer's works, as well as selections from relevant works by earlier and later writers, critical articles from a variety of perspectives, graphics, and general information on life in the Middle Ages. At the moment the site concentrates on the Canterbury Tales, but the longer-term goal is to create a more general Chaucer page. Please send any comments or suggestions about the site to < URL: Last Modified: Oct 3, 2006 Permission is granted to use this material for non-commercial purposes.
The Middle English Compendium. "Born Eunuchs" Home Page and Library. The willingness to engage in homosexual activity (particularly intergenerationally) was widespread among men in the ancient Mediterranean region.
Women and boys were considered equally tempting sex objects for ordinary men. Therefore, homosexual activity could not have provided a means of distinguishing a minority of men as "gay" the way we do in the modern world. However, the ancients did differentiate based on an unwillingness or incapacity for heterosexual sex. Certain men were known to fundamentally lack arousal for sex with women, and men of this kind were distinguished from the majority of ordinary men on that basis. Gay History and Literature.