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Martin Luther King - I Have A Dream Speech - August 28, 1963. MALCOLM X: BY ANY MEANS NECESSARY. LBJ Library and Museum - Civil. What was Jim Crow. Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s. Jim Crow was more than a series of rigid anti-black laws. It was a way of life. Under Jim Crow, African Americans were relegated to the status of second class citizens. Jim Crow represented the legitimization of anti-black racism. Many Christian ministers and theologians taught that whites were the Chosen people, blacks were cursed to be servants, and God supported racial segregation. A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a white male because it implied being socially equal.

Stetson Kennedy, the author of Jim Crow Guide (1990), offered these simple rules that blacks were supposed to observe in conversing with whites: Never assert or even intimate that a white person is lying. Jim Crow etiquette operated in conjunction with Jim Crow laws (black codes). Jim Crow laws touched every aspect of everyday life.

. © Dr. We Were There - The Greensboro Sit Ins. Civil Rights Movement - Jim Crow Laws - Separate Is Not Equal. “Marriages are void when one party is a white person and the other is possessed of one-eighth or more negro, Japanese, or Chinese blood.” —Nebraska, 1911 “Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored school.” —Missouri, 1929 “All railroads carrying passengers in the state (other than street railroads) shall provide equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races, by providing two or more passenger cars for each passenger train, or by dividing the cars by a partition, so as to secure separate accommodations.”

—Tennessee, 1891 See more Jim Crow laws Restricted real-estate covenant In communities across the country, property owners signed agreements called restrictive covenants. Biography for Kids: Sojourner Truth. History >> Biography >> Civil Rights for Kids Occupation: Abolitionist and author Born: c. 1797 in Swartekill, New York Died: November 26, 1883 in Battle Creek, Michigan Best known for: Former slave who became an abolitionist and women's rights activist Biography: Where did Sojourner Truth grow up? Sojourner Truth was born around 1797 on a farm in Swartekill, New York.

Her birth name was Isabella Baumfree and she was born a slave. She had at least 10 brothers and sisters, but she didn't get to know all of them. Slave owners would sell children just like property. Life as a Slave When Sojourner turned nine, it was her turn to be sold. Sojourner was smart, however, and soon learned English just by listening to others talk. Marriage and Children When Sojourner became a woman she fell in love with a slave named Robert from a nearby farm. Sojourner had five children, but one died shortly after birth. Escape When the year was up, Dumont changed his mind. Saving Her Son Abolitionist Ain't I a Woman.

Harriet Tubman for Kids. Biography Harriet Tubmanby H. Seymour Squyer Occupation: Nurse, Civil Rights Activist Born: 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland Died: March 10, 1913 in Auburn, New York Best known as: A leader in the Underground RailroadBiography: Where did Harriet Tubman grow up? Harriet Tubman was born a slave on a plantation in Maryland.

Life as a Slave Life as a slave was difficult. Later Harriet worked a number of jobs on the plantation such as plowing fields and loading produce into wagons. At the age of thirteen Harriet received a horrible head injury. The Underground Railroad During this time there were states in the northern United States where slavery was outlawed. Harriet Escapes In 1849 Harriet decided to escape. Leading Others to Freedom In 1850 the Fugitive Slave Act was passed. Harriet became famous as an Underground Railroad conductor. Harriet was truly brave. The Civil War Harriet's bravery and service did not end with the Underground Railroad, she also helped during the Civil War. Works Cited. African-American Slavery after 1500. Slave fort (modern Ghana) Although other people, both white and Native American, have been held as slaves in North America, the experience of the African people who were forced to come to North America as slaves was more unusual, because more than half of the people living in slave states were slaves.

Most of the people who became slaves in North America were from West Africa. You would be living in a village when outsiders attacked and captured you, and then they would sell you to somebody else, who sold you to somebody else, and in the end somebody would sell you to a white man who would keep you in a slave fort on the coast of Africa. Half of the people captured with you died of hunger or sickness, while you were walking to the coast.

Soon men with guns would force you to get on a ship, and they would take you to North America. The ship was terrible - dirty, and stinky, and you were crowded like on a crowded bus, and you had to stay there for two or three months. Slavery in America. Slavery in America Slavery in America began in 1607 and continued until 1865. These links tell you more about this controversial but, for a long time, legal practice. Slavery It's hard to imagine that people did these things to each other, but different times allowed different ideals. Your About Guide to African-American History reveals the terrible tragedy of slavery. Foes of Slavery These African-Americans are famous for fighting against slavery. Remembering Slavery: Those Who Survived Tell Their Stories Read about slavery in the words of the people who lived it and lived to tell about it.

Black Resistance: Slavery in the U.S. Thomas Paine Speaks Out Against Slavery This article was published in newspapers in 1775. The Underground Railroad Links, articles, pictures, stories, primary sources, and much more about this "route to freedom" followed by a great many slaves The Thirteenth Amendment The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery. Graphics courtesy of ArtToday. Growing Up in Slavery | Underground Railroad Student Activity. Slave Owners Nowadays when I hear folks growling and grumbling about not having this and that I just think what would they done if they be brought up on the Moore plantation.

The Moore plantation belong to Master Jim Moore, in Moore, South Carolina. The Moores had own the same plantation and the same [slaves] and their children for years back. When Master Jim’s pappy die he leave the whole thing to Master Jim, if he take care of his mammy. [Master Jim’s mammy] sure was a rip-jack. Master Jim’s wife was Mary Anderson. The Plantation Master Jim own the biggest plantation in the whole country. The quarters just long row of cabins daubed with dirt. Family and Work My granny she cook for us children while our mammy away in the field. My mammy she work in the field all day and piece and quilt all night. I never see how my mammy stand such hard work. My pappy he was a blacksmith. Keeping Control of Slaves It was a terrible sight to see the speculators come to de plantation.

Daily Life and Culture. African Slave Trade - Africa for Kids. Over a period of about 400 years, about 10-15 million African people were kidnapped and sold into slavery. These people were packed onto to crowded ships, and brought to the New World, the Americans, as a source of free labor. People were traded for goods. The slave trade was profitable and cruel. People would return from working in the fields or from hunting, and find their families missing. Some kingdoms, like Benin, refused to participate in the slave trade. Many people died on the trip to the New World. After the Civil War, it was illegal to buy slaves. Slavery in the United States. The slave market in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864 (Library of Congress) When the North American continent was first colonized by Europeans, the land was vast, the work was harsh, and there was a severe shortage of labor. Men and women were needed to work the land. White bond servants, paying their passage across the ocean from Europe through indentured labor, eased but did not solve the problem.

Early in the seventeenth century, a Dutch ship loaded with African slaves introduced a solution—and a new problem—to the New World. Slaves were most economical on large farms where labor-intensive cash crops, such as tobacco, could be grown. By the end of the American Revolution, slavery had proven unprofitable in the North and was dying out. Cotton replaced tobacco as the South’s main cash crop and slavery became profitable again. Torn between the economic benefits of slavery and the moral and constitutional issues it raised, white Southerners grew more and more defensive of the institution. Kid's Biography: Martin Luther King, Jr. History >> Biography >> Civil Rights for Kids Martin Luther King at the March on Washingtonby Unknown Occupation: Civil Rights Leader Born: January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, GA Died: April 4, 1968 in Memphis, TN Best known for: Advancing the Civil Rights Movement and his "I Have a Dream" speechBiography: Martin Luther King, Jr. was a civil rights activist in the 1950s and 1960s.

He led non-violent protests to fight for the rights of all people including African Americans. He hoped that America and the world could become a colorblind society where race would not impact a person's civil rights. Where did Martin grow up? Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in Atlanta, GA on January 15, 1929. Martin's dad was a preacher which inspired Martin to pursue the ministry.

How did he get involved in civil rights? In his first major civil rights action, Martin Luther King, Jr. led the Montgomery Bus Boycott. When did King give his famous "I Have a Dream" speech? How did he die? Martin Luther King Jr. Overview. What does "civil rights" mean? Civil rights are basic rights that every citizen has under the laws of the government.

In the United States the civil rights of each individual citizen are protected by the Constitution. Civil rights for every person means that regardless of gender, skin color, religion, nationality, age, disability, or religion, a person should not be discriminated against. Civil rights include the right to free speech, privacy, religion, assembly, a fair trial, and freedom of thought. The term "civil rights" comes from the Latin term "ius civis", which means "rights of a citizen. " Civil Rights Movements Throughout history there have been different civil rights movements. Civil Rights Leaders During each civil rights movement there have been men and women who have led the fight for their own rights as well as those of others. Events and Other Information Below you can find other information on the history of civil rights including events, timelines, and a glossary of terms. Rosa Parks - KIDS DISCOVER. Rosa Parks had endured prejudice, bigotry, and injustice all her life.

She knew this was unfair and unjust. What made it worse was that there were laws that supported the unjust treatment of black people. The police and government did not treat everyone equally. They did not protect everyone equally. When Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she inspired millions of people to speak out for civil rights. Rosa Parks launched the first major protest of the Civil Rights Movement. When Rosa Parks told the bus driver that she would not give her seat to a white passenger in 1955, she lit the spark that became the Civil Rights Movements.

When Rosa’s grandparents were born, there was still slavery in 15 states in the southern U.S. After slavery was ended, it looked like things would get better. Some forms of bigotry were scary and violent. The Ku Klux Klan was a hate group that terrorized black people. Rosa Parks on the bus. Martin Luther King Jr. Biography for Kids: Ruby Bridges. History >> Biography >> Civil Rights for Kids Occupation: Civil Rights Activist Born: September 8, 1954 in Tylertown, Mississippi Best known for: First African-American student to attend an all-white elementary school in the SouthBiography: Where did Ruby Bridges grow up?

Ruby Bridges grew up on a small farm in Tylertown, Mississippi. Her parents were sharecroppers, meaning they farmed the land, but didn't own it. When Ruby was four years old, her family moved to New Orleans. US Marshals with Young Ruby Bridges on School Steps by Unknown Attending School Ruby went to kindergarten at an all black school. Chosen for Integration One day, Ruby was asked to take a test. At first her father didn't want her to go to the white school. First Day at a White School Ruby began the first grade at her old school. When Ruby arrived at the school there were lots of people protesting and threatening Ruby and her family. The first day of school was strange for Ruby. The Only Child in Class. History of Civil Rights movement, 4th grade Lesson Intro. African-American Civil Rights Movement. History >> Civil Rights for Kids March on Washington Aug 28, 1963from the United States Information Agency The African-American Civil Rights Movement was an ongoing fight for racial equality that took place for over 100 years after the Civil War.

Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Booker T. Washington, and Rosa Parks paved the way for non-violent protests which led to changes in the law. When most people talk about the "Civil Rights Movement" they are talking about the protests in the 1950s and 1960s that led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Background The Civil Rights Movement has its background in the abolitionist movement before the Civil War. Segregation and the Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Drinking Fountain by John Vachon After the Civil War, many southern states continued to treat African-Americans as second class citizens.

In the early 1900s, black people began to protest the Jim Crow laws that southern states were implementing to enforce segregation. The Movement Grows. Civil Rights Act of 1964. History >> Civil Rights for Kids The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was one of the most important civil rights laws in the history of the United States. It outlawed discrimination, ended racial segregation, and protected the voting rights of minorities and women. Lyndon Johnson signing Civil Rights Actby Cecil Stoughton Background The Declaration of Independence declared that "All men are created equal. " However, when the country was first formed this quote didn't apply to everyone, only to wealthy white landowners.

Despite these changes, however, there were still people who were being denied their basic civil rights. President John F. On June 11, 1963 President John F. Lyndon Johnson meets with Civil Rights Leaders by Yoichi Okamoto Signed into Law President Johnson also wanted a new civil rights bill to be passed. Main Points of the Law The law was divided up into 11 sections called titles. Title I - The voting requirements must be the same for all people. History >> Civil Rights for Kids. March on Washington. Jim Crow Laws. Birmingham Campaign. Little Rock Nine. Montgomery Bus Boycott. Kid's Biography: Martin Luther King, Jr. Rosa Parks - KIDS DISCOVER. US History 1920-1990 (Racism) - Questions. US History 1920-1990 (Racism) WGBH American Experience . Freedom Riders . People . Stokely Carmichael.

'Still a city of slaves' – Selma, in the words of those who live there | US news. Selma The Bridge To The Ballot. History of the Civil Rights Movement. Civil Rights and the 1950s: Crash Course US History #39.