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Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to " nanotech ") is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology [ 1 ] [ 2 ] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology .
A Molecular Gearing System. [ 1 ] Technomimetics are molecular systems that can mimic man-made devices. The term was first introduced in 1997. [ 1 ] The current set of technomimetic molecules [ 2 ] includes motors, [ 3 ] rotors, [ 4 ] gears, [ 5 ] gyroscopes, [ 6 ] tweezers, [ 7 ] and other molecular devices.
A nano brain [ 1 ] is a conceptual device with massively parallel computational abilities, following the information processing principles of the human brain . This machine assembly would serve as an intelligent decision making unit for nanorobots [ clarification needed ] . One essential feature of a nano brain is that it would acquire all sensory inputs from the external environment, and in processing that information , generate distinct instructions for every single execution unit connected to the nano brain simultaneously. [ 2 ] Thus, the computing machine will communicate with the external world in a similar fashion to our central nervous system .
Megascale engineering (or macro-engineering ) [ 1 ] is a form of exploratory engineering concerned with the construction of structures on an enormous scale.
Astroengineering is the construction of megastructures in space by technologically advanced beings. It is a form of megascale engineering . Typically, proposed feats of astroengineering are on the scale to remake an entire stellar system .
Diagram showing equatorial and polar Lunar space elevators running to L 1 . An L 2 elevator would mirror this arrangement on the Lunar far side, and cargo dropped from its end would be flung outward into the solar system.
An orbital ring is a concept for a space elevator that consists of a ring in low Earth orbit that rotates at above orbital speed, that has fixed tethers hanging down to the ground.
The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to utilize.
Schematic of the global sources of energy in 2010
The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus (in contrast with fission power ).
In particle physics , antimatter is material composed of antiparticles , which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but have opposite charge and quantum spin . Antiparticles bind with each other to form antimatter in the same way that normal particles bind to form normal matter.
A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure originally described by Freeman Dyson .
Star lifting is any of several hypothetical processes by which a highly advanced civilization (at least Kardashev-II ) could remove a substantial portion of a star's matter in a controlled manner for other uses.
Planetary engineering is the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet . [ 1 ] The goal of this theoretical task is usually to make other worlds habitable for life . Perhaps the best-known type of planetary engineering is terraforming , by which a planet's surface conditions are altered to be more like those of Earth . Other types of planetary engineering include ecopoiesis , the introduction of an ecology to a lifeless environment.
An artist's conception shows a terraformed Mars in four stages of development. Terraforming (literally, "Earth-shaping") of a planet , moon , or other body is the hypothetical process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere , temperature , surface topography or ecology to be similar to the biosphere of Earth , in order to make it habitable by humans . The term is sometimes used more generally as a synonym for planetary engineering , although some consider this more general usage an error.