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The Founding Fathers' First Sons : THE GREAT TRIUMVIRATE by Merrill D. Peterson (Oxford University Press: $27.95; 573 pp.) - latimes. They were America's "second race of giants. " Entering public life with the War of 1812, they departed with the Civil War looming. The meeting of Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster in Congress in the year 1813 heralded a new era of American political leadership. Washington, Jefferson, and Madison--each of whom had succeeded in his turn to the presidency--had given the nation victory in its War of Independence, the Declaration that embodied its philosophy, and the supple constitutional framework that still binds it together.

Clay, Calhoun and Webster would never attain the nation's highest office, though each aspired to and repeatedly sought it. Yet they were to dominate the next 40 years almost as completely as the Founding Fathers had dominated the previous 40. At the outset the task of this second generation seemed clear: the building of a nation upon the inherited legal, political, and geographic framework. And the men, particularly the men. Perhaps. Dred Scott. Dred Scott first went to trial to sue for his freedom in 1847. Ten years later, after a decade of appeals and court reversals, his case was finally brought before the United States Supreme Court.

In what is perhaps the most infamous case in its history, the court decided that all people of African ancestry -- slaves as well as those who were free -- could never become citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue in federal court. The court also ruled that the federal government did not have the power to prohibit slavery in its territories.

Scott, needless to say, remained a slave. Born around 1800, Scott migrated westward with his master, Peter Blow. Scott's extended stay in Illinois, a free state, gave him the legal standing to make a claim for freedom, as did his extended stay in Wisconsin, where slavery was also prohibited. Scott went to trial in June of 1847, but lost on a technicality -- he couldn't prove that he and Harriet were owned by Emerson's widow. Lincoln Douglas Debates | Summary. Facts, information and articles about the Lincoln / Douglas Debates Lincoln Douglas Debates summary: The Lincoln–Douglas Debates of 1858 were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for Senate in Illinois, and the incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate both vying to win the Senate seat of Illinois.

The famous debates revolved around the subject of slavery, and the debates had the format of each candidate being able to speak for 90 minutes. They are generally considered one of the most famous political contests in American History, tackling the issue of the survival of the union and the institution of slavery. Though they were vying for a Senate seat, the debates ended up being very important in determining the future Presidency, which Lincoln won in 1860.

Featured Article On The Lincoln Douglas Debates Three Views of the Lincoln-Douglass Dynamic: August/September 2009 By Michael Fellman. John Brown's Harpers Ferry Raid. John Brown's Raid on Harpers FerryOctober 16-18, 1859 On the evening of October 16, 1859 John Brown, a staunch abolitionist, and a group of his supporters left their farmhouse hide-out en route to Harpers Ferry. Descending upon the town in the early hours of October 17th, Brown and his men captured prominent citizens and seized the federal armory and arsenal. Brown had hopes that the local slave population would join the raid and through the raid’s success weapons would be supplied to slaves and freedom fighters throughout the country; this was not to be. First held down by the local militia in the late morning of the 17th, Brown took refuge in the arsenal’s engine house. However, this sanctuary from the fire storm did not last long, when in the late afternoon US Marines under Colonel Robert E.

Lee arrived and stormed the engine house, killing many of... John Brown's Raid on Harpers FerryOctober 16-18, 1859. John Brown's Raid Video - John Brown. Young America movement. Where U.S.-Cuba relations stand and what may change - Washington Post. Dred Scott decision - Mar 06, 1857. Also on this day Lead Story Now the most common drug in household medicine cabinets, acetylsalicylic acid was originally made from a chemical found in the bark of willow trees. In its primitive form, the active ingredient, salicin, was used for centuries in folk medicine, beginning in ancient Greece when Hippocrates used it to relieve pain... American Revolution A committee of the New York Provincial Congress instructs Major William Malcolm to dismantle the Sandy Hook lighthouse in the then-disputed territory of Sandy Hook, now in New Jersey, on this day in 1776, telling him to “use your best discretion to render the light-house entirely useless.”

Automotive Gottlieb Daimler, the German engineer who invented an early version of the internal combustion engine and founded an auto company bearing his name, dies at the age of 65 on this day in 1900. Cold War Crime The trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg begins in New York Southern District federal court. Disaster General Interest The U.S. Hollywood. Lincoln, Abraham. 1897. Political Debates Between Lincoln and Douglas. Second Debate: Freeport, Illinois - Lincoln Home National Historic Site. Mr. Douglas' Speech Ladies and Gentlemen-The silence with which you have listened to Mr.

Lincoln during his hour is creditable to this vast audience, composed of men of various political parties. Nothing is more honorable to any large mass of people assembled for the purpose of a fair discussion, than that kind and respectful attention that is yielded not only to your political friends, but to those who are opposed to you in politics. I am glad that at last I have brought Mr. Lincoln to the conclusion that he had better define his position on certain political questions to which I called his attention at Ottawa. He there showed no disposition, no inclination, to answer them. First, he desires to know if the people of Kansas shall form a Constitution by means entirely proper and unobjectionable and ask admission into the Union as a State, before they have the requisite population for a member of Congress, whether I will vote for that admission.

The next question propounded to me by Mr. Africans in America/Part 3/Nat Turner's Rebellion. Nat Turner was born on October 2, 1800, in Southampton County, Virginia, the week before Gabriel was hanged. While still a young child, Nat was overheard describing events that had happened before he was born. This, along with his keen intelligence, and other signs marked him in the eyes of his people as a prophet "intended for some great purpose. " A deeply religious man, he "therefore studiously avoided mixing in society, and wrapped [him]self in mystery, devoting [his] time to fasting and praying.

" In 1821, Turner ran away from his overseer, returning after thirty days because of a vision in which the Spirit had told him to "return to the service of my earthly master. " The next year, following the death of his master, Samuel Turner, Nat was sold to Thomas Moore. At the beginning of the year 1830, Turner was moved to the home of Joseph Travis, the new husband of Thomas Moore's widow. Then, in February, 1831, there was an eclipse of the sun. Previous | next. The Compromise of 1850. U.S. Senate The "Great Compromiser," Henry Clay, introduces the Compromise of 1850 in the Senate. The plan was set forth. The giants — Calhoun, Webster, and Clay — had spoken.

Still the Congress debated the contentious issues well into the summer. California was admitted to the Union as the 16th free state. The Compromise of 1850 overturned the Missouri Compromise and left the overall issue of slavery unsettled. Compromise of 1850 Who won and who lost in the deal? Henry Clay, 1777-1852This is much less a biography than a collection of raw facts and dates in the life of Henry Clay, but there are so many of them this is a great resource. Report broken link Thoughts on the 1852 Political CampaignWhat did the common voter think of politics and national affairs in 1852? Report broken link Report broken link. The Fugitive Slave Law. Senator DOUGLAS has given notice of his intention to introduce a bill amending the Fugitive Slave law of 1850, so as to provide more effectually for the recovery of "persons held to service escaping from one State to another.

" We have no intimation of the character of its provisions. But if it should be framed in the proper spirit and with due regard to the exigencies of the case, it cannot fail to pave the way for action on the part of the Northern States, which may give the Union men of the South a better basis for their efforts to preserve the Union than they have at present. There are two objects to be accomplished by amendments of the Fugitive Slave law, -- one, the more effective operation of that law in securing the return of fugitives, -- the other, the removal of those features of it which have put freemen at the North in jeopardy, and have thus led to the enactment of the obnoxious Personal Liberty bills. Fortunately, these measures depend upon each other. Calisphere - Californio Society, 1830s-1880s.

Questions to Consider How do hand-drawn diseños and more formal surveyed land case maps show how land was viewed differently by Californios and by the US legal system? What can you learn about their lives by looking at the Californio family portraits and the image of Indian "Joe" and his family? How did 20th-century Ramona Pageants romanticize life on Californio ranchos? About the Images Californios, elite families that received large land grants from Spain and Mexico, flourished during the 1830s to 1880s. Overview The wealthy Spanish Californian families called Californios were the first group to receive large-scale benefit from California’s rich agricultural resources. Californio wealth was closely tied to their land holdings and provided credit at local markets. Nearly all aspects of Californio society were connected to its relationship to the land.

With the Gold Rush, and the end of the US-Mexican war in 1848, a massive influx of settlers laid claim to Californio land. Grade 4: The Annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American War, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845–1848 - 1830–1860. During his tenure, U.S. President James K. Polk oversaw the greatest territorial expansion of the United States to date. Polk accomplished this through the annexation of Texas in 1845, the negotiation of the Oregon Treaty with Great Britain in 1846, and the conclusion of the Mexican-American War in 1848, which ended with the signing and ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848. The Battle of Veracruz These events brought within the control of the United States the future states of Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Washington, and Oregon, as well as portions of what would later become Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, and Montana.

Following Texas’ successful war of independence against Mexico in 1836, President Martin van Buren refrained from annexing Texas after the Mexicans threatened war. President John Tyler In July, 1845, Polk, who had been elected on a platform of expansionism, ordered the commander of the U.S. San Francisco 49ers Reading Comprehension « Texas enters the Union - Dec 29, 1845 - HISTORY.com. Also on this day Lead Story On this day in 1890, in the final chapter of America’s long Indian wars, the U.S. Cavalry kills 146 Sioux at Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota. Throughout 1890, the U.S. government worried about the increasing influence at Pine Ridge of the Ghost Dance spiritual movement, which... American Revolution On this day in 1778, British Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell and his force of between 2500 and 3600 troops, which included the 71st Highland regiment, New York Loyalists, and Hessian mercenaries, launch a surprise attack on American forces defending Savannah, Georgia.

Automotive On this day in 1989, 20-year-old actor Christian Slater is arrested for drunk driving in Los Angeles, California. Civil War On this day in 1862, at the Battle of Chickasaw Bluffs, Union General William T. Cold War Crime The “Railway Rapist” attacks 19-year-old Alison Day and abducts her from a London train. Disaster General Interest Hollywood Literary Music Old West. Mexican American War | Watch Latino Americans Online. A personalized PBS video experience is only a few clicks away.

Use one of the services below to sign-in to PBS, and you'll be able to manage videos in your Watchlist, keep track of your favorite shows, watch PBS in high definition, and much more! You've just tried to add this video to your Watchlist so you can watch it later. But first, we need you to sign-in to PBS using one of the services below. You’ll be able to manage videos in your Watchlist, keep track of your favorite shows, watch PBS in high definition, and much more! You've just tried to select this program as one of your favorites.

But first, we need you to sign-in to PBS using one of the services below. To get you watching PBS in high definition we need you to sign-in to PBS using one of the services below. You'll be able to manage videos in your Watchlist, keep track of your favorite shows, watch PBS in high definition, and much more! We have updated our registration process. Ostend Manifesto - HowStuffWorks. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Uncle Tom's Cabin was initially released in serial format in the National Era, a weekly newspaper, from June 5, 1851-April 1, 1852. See HERE for the text of Uncle Tom’s Cabin as originally released in The National Era. You will find each chapter, followed by scholarly commentary, and links to Stowe’s A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin and related materials. Click HERE to see photos from the 2014 Marathon Reading of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Click HERE to visit the award-winning website, Uncle Tom's Cabin: Generating a Rising Tide of Responsibility to End the Institution of Slavery.

Harriet Beecher Stowe's best known novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), changed forever how Americans viewed slavery, the system that treated people as property. Uncle Tom's Cabin was a runaway best-seller, selling 10,000 copies in the United States in its first week; 300,000 in the first year; and in Great Britain, 1.5 million copies in one year. LEARN how Stowe encouraged President Lincoln to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. The Kansas-Nebraska Act Explained: US History Review. Introduction < The Confessions of Nat Turner (1800-1831) < 1826-1850. In the most important and best-documented slave insurrection in Southern history, Nat Turner, son of an African-born slave mother in Southampton County, Virginia, led an uprising of sixty or seventy slaves. As his remarkable confession indicates, he was a precocious youth and became a preacher motivated by mystical voices to fulfill a dream to liberate his people. He admitted that his own master, Joseph Travis, was a kindly person; yet he and his family were the first to be slaughtered.

At least 51 - Gray says 55 - were murdered the night of the uprising, August 21, 1831, The details are given in the Confessions below. This event took on special significance to Southerners because the Southern press had reported insurrections in at least a half dozen places in the Caribbean or West Indies and one in North Carolina. (There is no proof of concerted conspiracy between Turner and the principals of the Carolina episode, however.) This edition of The Confessions of Nat Turner is complete. Interesting Facts about the Underground Railroad : Harriet Tubman. Henry Clay and the Struggle for the Union - The Compromise of 1850 to the Civil War. Compromise of 1850. The Mexican-American War Part 1: How It All Started. History: Mexican-American War for Kids. Gold Rush Video - America The Story of Us.