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Twenty years ago, writers wrote and readers read. The web lets readers respond, and increasingly they do—in comment threads, on forums, and in their own blog posts. Many who respond to something disagree with it. That's to be expected. The result is there's a lot more disagreeing going on, especially measured by the word. If we're all going to be disagreeing more, we should be careful to do it well. DH0. This is the lowest form of disagreement, and probably also the most common. Logic. Logic (from the Ancient Greek: λογική, logike) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the use and study of valid reasoning. The study of logic also features prominently in mathematics and computer science.
Logic is often divided into three parts: inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning. List of fallacies. Formal fallacy. In philosophy, a formal fallacy is a pattern of reasoning that is always wrong.
This is due to a flaw in the logical structure of the argument which renders the argument invalid. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are false. The term fallacy is often used generally to mean an argument that is problematic for any reason, whether it is formal or informal. The presence of a formal fallacy in a deductive argument does not imply anything about the argument's premises or its conclusion. Both may actually be true, or even more probable as a result of the argument, but the deductive argument is still invalid because the conclusion does not follow from the premises in the manner described. "Fallacious arguments usually have the deceptive appearance of being good arguments A different approach to understanding and classifying fallacies is provided by argumentation theory.
Common examples Informal logic. Informal logic is associated with (informal) fallacies, critical thinking, the Thinking Skills Movement and the interdisciplinary inquiry known as argumentation theory.
Frans H. van Eemeren writes that the label "informal logic" covers a "collection of normative approaches to the study of reasoning in ordinary language that remain closer to the practice of argumentation than formal logic. " History The field perhaps became recognized under its current name with the First International Symposium on Informal Logic held in 1978.
Bias. Cognitive bias. Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive.
Cognitive biases may lead to more effective actions in a given context. Furthermore, cognitive biases enable faster decisions when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy, as illustrated in heuristics. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, resulting from a lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (bounded rationality), or simply from a limited capacity for information processing. A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics.
Cognitive biases are important to study because "systematic errors" highlight the "psychological processes that underlie perception and judgement" (Tversky & Kahneman,1999, p. 582). Overview Bias arises from various processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Types Among the "cold" biases, List of cognitive biases. Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. However, this kind of confirmation bias has also been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person. Although this research overwhelmingly involves human subjects, some findings that demonstrate bias have been found in non-human animals as well.
For example, hyperbolic discounting has been observed in rats, pigeons, and monkeys.