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Notable Economic Thinkers

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Robert Gray (accountancy academic) He is best known as the world's most self-cited author in the academic study of Accounting having contributed hundreds of largely repetitive journal articles and to dozens of books over a twenty-five-year period. [citation needed] His particular speciality is in social and environmental accounting where along with Jan Bebbington he is one of the world's preeminent authorities. Gray was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in the 2009 Birthday Honours.[1] 1982: Will Baxter Manuscript Prize (with A.J.B. Hope) for "Power and Policy Making: The Development of an R&D Standard" Journal of Business Finance & Accounting Vol.9 No.4 Winter 1982 (pp. 531–558)1992: Larry Sawyer Manuscript Award (with D.J. Collison)"The Environmental Audit: Green-gauge or Whitewash? " Source: "The Conceptual Framework: A Review Article" (with A.J.B. Robert Gray's St.

Russell Means. Russell Charles Means (November 10, 1939 – October 22, 2012) was an American Oglala Lakota activist for the rights of Native American people and libertarian political activist. He became a prominent member of the American Indian Movement (AIM) after joining the organization in 1968, and helped organize notable events that attracted national and international media coverage. Means was active in international issues of indigenous peoples, including working with groups in Central and South America, and with the United Nations for recognition of their rights. He was active in politics at his native Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and at the state and national level.

Early life[edit] Means was born on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, to Theodora Louise Feather and Walter "Hank" Means.[1] His mother was a Yankton Dakota from Greenwood, South Dakota and his father, an Oglala Lakota.[2] He was given the name Wanbli Ohitika by his mother, which means "Brave Eagle" in the Lakota language.[3] Friedrich Hayek.

Hermann Hesse. Biography[edit] Family background[edit] Hermann Karl Hesse[1] was born on 2 July 1877 in the Black Forest town of Calw in Württemberg, German Empire. His parents served in India at a mission under the auspices of the Basel Mission, a Protestant Christian missionary society. Hesse's mother, Marie Gundert, was born at such a mission in India in 1842. Hesse's birthplace, 2007 Hesse's father, Johannes Hesse, the son of a doctor, was born in 1847 in the Estonian town of Paide (Weissenstein). Hesse grew up in a Swabian Pietist household, with the Pietist tendency to insulate believers into small, deeply thoughtful groups. Childhood[edit] From childhood, Hesse appeared headstrong and hard for his family to handle. St. Hermann Hesse's grandfather Hermann Gundert, a doctor of philosophy and fluent in multiple languages, encouraged the boy to read widely, giving him access to his library, which was filled with the works of world literature.

Young Hesse shared a love of music with his mother. Isaiah Berlin. Sir Isaiah Berlin OM CBE FBA (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.[1] Although averse to writing, his improvised lectures and talks were recorded and transcribed, with his spoken word being converted by his secretaries into his published essays and books. Born in Riga, Latvia, in 1909, he moved to Petrograd, Russia, at the age of six, where he witnessed the revolutions of 1917. In 1921 his family moved to the UK, and he was educated at St Paul's School, London, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford.[2] In 1932, at the age of 23, Berlin was elected to a prize fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford. He translated works by Ivan Turgenev from Russian into English and, during the war, worked for the British Diplomatic Service.

From 1957 to 1967 he was Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory at the University of Oxford. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1963 to 1964. Early life[edit] John von Neumann. John von Neumann (/vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian and later American pure and applied mathematician, physicist, inventor, polymath, and polyglot. He made major contributions to a number of fields,[2] including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and fluid dynamics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics.[3] He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (as one of the few originally appointed), and a key figure in the development of game theory[2][4] and the concepts of cellular automata,[2] the universal constructor, and the digital computer. .

And. Charles Fourier. François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher. An influential thinker, some of Fourier's social and moral views, held to be radical in his lifetime, have become mainstream thinking in modern society. Fourier is, for instance, credited with having originated the word feminism in 1837.[1] Biography[edit] Fourier was born in Besançon, France on April 7, 1772.[2] The son of a small businessman, Fourier was more interested in architecture than in his father's trade.[2] He wanted to become an engineer, but the local military engineering School accepted only sons of noblemen.[2] Fourier later said he was grateful that he did not pursue engineering, because it would have consumed too much of his time and taken away from his true desire to help humanity.[3] When his father died in 1781, Fourier received two-fifths of his father's estate, valued at more than 200,000 francs.[4] This inheritance enabled Fourier to travel throughout Europe at his leisure.

Félix Guattari. Pierre-Félix Guattari (French: [ɡwataʁi] Biography[edit] Clinic of La Borde[edit] Guattari was born in Villeneuve-les-Sablons, a working-class suburb of north-west Paris, France.[1] He trained under (and was analysed by) the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan in the early 1950s. Subsequently, he worked (until his death from a heart attack in 1992) at the experimental psychiatric clinic of La Borde under the direction of Lacan's pupil, the psychiatrist Jean Oury. La Borde was a venue for conversation among many students of philosophy, psychology, ethnology, and social work. One particularly novel orientation developed at La Borde consisted of the suspension of the classical analyst/analysand pair in favour of an open confrontation in group therapy. 1960s to 1970s[edit] From 1955 to 1965, Guattari edited and contributed to La Voie Communiste (Communist Way), a Trotskyist newspaper.[2] He supported anti-colonialist struggles as well as the Italian Autonomists. 1980s to 1990s[edit] Works[edit]

Antonio Gramsci. Antonio Gramsci (Italian: [anˈtɔːnjo ˈɡramʃi]; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist theoretician and politician. He wrote on political theory, sociology and linguistics. He was a founding member and one-time leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. Gramsci was one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century. He is a notable figure within modern European thought and his writings analyse culture and political leadership. Life[edit] Early life[edit] In 1898 Francesco was convicted of embezzlement and imprisoned, reducing his family to destitution. Gramsci completed secondary school in Cagliari, where he lodged with his elder brother Gennaro, a former soldier whose time on the mainland had made him a militant socialist. Turin[edit] In April 1919 with Togliatti, Angelo Tasca and Umberto Terracini Gramsci set up the weekly newspaper L'Ordine Nuovo (The New Order). In the Communist Party of Italy[edit] Thought[edit]

Paul Goodman (writer) Paul Goodman (/ˈɡʊdmən/; September 9, 1911 – August 2, 1972) was an American novelist, playwright, poet and psychotherapist, although now best known as a social critic, anarchist philosopher, and public intellectual. Though often thought of as a sociologist, he vehemently denied being one in a presentation in the Experimental College at San Francisco State in 1964, and in fact said he could not read sociology because it was too often lifeless. The author of dozens of books including Growing Up Absurd and The Community of Scholars, Goodman was an activist on the pacifist Left in the 1960s and a frequently cited inspiration to the student movement of that decade.

A lay therapist for a number of years, he was a co-founder of Gestalt Therapy in the 1940s and '50s. Goodman was born in New York City to Barnett and Augusta Goodman, both immigrants. Goodman was a prolific writer of essays, fiction, plays, and poetry. In 1967, Goodman's son Matthew died in a mountain climbing accident. Denis Diderot. Denis Diderot (French: [dəni didʁo]) (5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment, and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

Diderot also contributed to literature, notably with Jacques le fataliste et son maître (Jacques the Fatalist and his Master), which emulated Laurence Sterne in challenging conventions regarding novels and their structure and content,[citation needed] while also examining philosophical ideas about free will. Diderot is also known as the author of the dialogue Le Neveu de Rameau (Rameau's Nephew), upon which many articles and sermons about consumer desire have been based. Biography[edit] Denis Diderot was born in Langres, Champagne, and began his formal education at a Jesuit collège in Langres. Diderot had affairs with the writer Madeleine de Puisieux and with Sophie Volland (1716–1784). Jean-Paul Sartre. His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre has also been noted for his open relationship with the prominent feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir.

He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature but refused it, saying that he always declined official honors and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution".[2] Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Jean-Paul Sartre was born in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer.[3] His mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer. (Her father, Charles Schweitzer, was the older brother of Albert Schweitzer's father, Louis Théophile.)[4] When Sartre was two years old, his father died of a fever.

World War II[edit] French journalists visit General George C. Cold War politics and anticolonialism[edit] Herbert Marcuse. Herbert Marcuse (German: [maʁˈkuːzə]; July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory. Born in Berlin, Marcuse studied at the universities of Berlin and then at Freiburg, where he received his Ph.D.[2] He was a prominent figure in the Frankfurt-based Institute for Social Research – what later became known as the Frankfurt School. He was married to Sophie Wertheim (1924–1951), Inge Neumann (1955–1972), and Erica Sherover (1976–1979).[3][4][5] Active in the United States after 1934, his intellectual concerns were the dehumanizing effects of capitalism and modern technology. He offers a powerful critique of modern industrial societies and the material and entertainment cultures they manufacture, arguing that they use new forms of social control to dupe the masses into accepting the ways things are.[6] Biography Early life Emigration to the United States World War II Post War Jesuit Fr.

Peter McLaren. Peter McLaren "McLaren's work is a passionate challenge to all forms of education that limit rather than enhance the project of human emancipation. "[1] Peter McLaren (born August 2, 1948) is a Professor in the Division of Urban Schooling, the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles (United States).[2] He is currently Distinguished Fellow in Critical Studies at Chapman University, California.

He is the author and editor of forty-five books and hundreds of scholarly articles and chapters. McLaren is married to Yan Wang from Northeast China. He is known as one of the leading architects of critical pedagogy and for his scholarly writings on critical literacy, the sociology of education, cultural studies, critical ethnography, and Marxist theory.

Professor McLaren is a faculty member at the Institute of Critical Pedagogy at The Global Center for Advanced Studies and he lectures worldwide on the politics of education. Life[edit] Career[edit] Douglas Kellner. Douglas Kellner (born 1943) is a "third generation" critical theorist in the tradition of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, or Frankfurt School. Kellner was an early theorist of the field of critical media literacy and has been a leading theorist of media culture generally. [citation needed] In his recent work, he has increasingly argued that media culture has become dominated by the forms of spectacle and mega-spectacle. He also has contributed important studies of alter-globalization processes, and has always been concerned with counter-hegemonic movements and alternative cultural expressions in the name of a more radically democratic society.[1] Kellner has written with a number of authors, including (with Steven Best) an award-winning trilogy of books on postmodern turns in philosophy, the arts, and in science and technology.

Education and career[edit] Recent controversies[edit] Political writing[edit] Selected works[edit] Books[edit] Essays and articles[edit] References[edit] Hans Albert. Hans Albert Hans Albert (born February 8, 1921) is a German philosopher. Born in Cologne, he lives in Heidelberg. His fields of research are Social Sciences and General Studies of Methods. He is a critical rationalist, giving special attention to rational heuristics. He is a strong critic of the continental hermeneutic tradition coming from Heidegger and Gadamer. Albert's critical rationalism[edit] Albert held the chair of 'Social Sciences and General Studies of Methods' at the University of Mannheim. He gave evidence for his thesis that there is no field of human activities where one should not be critical.

In his view the attitude of criticism is one of the oldest European traditions (going back to the pre-Socratics) in comparison with other less critical traditions. Before his many books were published Hans Albert was already known to a broader audience for his contributions to the positivism dispute answering his opponents of the so called Frankfurt School (school of Theodor W. Karl Popper. Murray Bookchin. Michel Foucault. Alan Watts. Rupert Sheldrake. Ferdinand Lassalle. Joseph Stiglitz. Paul Krugman. Thomas Jefferson. John Adams. Friedrich Nietzsche. Adam Smith. Immanuel Kant.

Eduard Bernstein. John Locke. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Leo Tolstoy. Peter Kropotkin. Leon Trotsky. Stalinism. Murray Rothbard.