background preloader

To sort science 7 Jan 14

Facebook Twitter

Energy Sources & Generation. Wormholes. I was at a talk the other night listening to a nervous grad student present a paper about knots when, for whatever reason – I was thinking about Michael Heizer – wham!


Gravitation. Gravitation, or gravity, is a natural phenomenon by which all physical bodies attract each other.


It is most commonly recognized and experienced as the agent that gives weight to physical objects, and causes physical objects to fall toward the ground when dropped from a height. During the grand unification epoch, gravity separated from the electronuclear force. Manhattan Project. Two types of atomic bomb were developed during the war.

Manhattan Project

A relatively simple gun-type fission weapon was made using uranium-235, an isotope that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium. Since it is chemically identical to the most common isotope, uranium-238, and has almost the same mass, it proved difficult to separate. Three methods were employed for uranium enrichment: electromagnetic, gaseous and thermal. Most of this work was performed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In parallel with the work on uranium was an effort to produce plutonium. The project was also charged with gathering intelligence on the German nuclear energy project. The first nuclear device ever detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test, conducted at New Mexico's Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on 16 July 1945.

FAQ on Vedic Mathematics. (From Georges Ifrah's The Universal History of Numbers) FAQ in Ancient Indian Mathematics If you have questions on Vedic Mathematics or related topics, don't be bashful, send them to

FAQ on Vedic Mathematics

No question will be deemed too simple or obvious. Contents Answers. Quark. A quark (/ˈkwɔrk/ or /ˈkwɑrk/) is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.


Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.[1] Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons (of which protons and neutrons are examples), and mesons.[2][3] For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves.

The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964.[5] Quarks were introduced as parts of an ordering scheme for hadrons, and there was little evidence for their physical existence until deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968.[6][7] Accelerator experiments have provided evidence for all six flavors. Classification[edit] Electron. History[edit] In the early 1700s, Francis Hauksbee and French chemist Charles François de Fay independently discovered what they believed were two kinds of frictional electricity—one generated from rubbing glass, the other from rubbing resin.


From this, Du Fay theorized that electricity consists of two electrical fluids, vitreous and resinous, that are separated by friction, and that neutralize each other when combined.[17] A decade later Benjamin Franklin proposed that electricity was not from different types of electrical fluid, but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. Atom.

The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.


The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other by chemical bonds based on the same force, forming a molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it is positively or negatively charged and is known as an ion. Proton. List of particles. This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe.

List of particles

For individual lists of the different particles, see the individual pages given below. Elementary particles[edit] Atomic nucleus. A model of the atomic nucleus showing it as a compact bundle of the two types of nucleons: protons (red) and neutrons (blue).

Atomic nucleus

In this diagram, protons and neutrons look like little balls stuck together, but an actual nucleus (as understood by modern nuclear physics) cannot be explained like this, but only by using quantum mechanics. In a nucleus which occupies a certain energy level (for example, the ground state), each nucleon has multiple locations at once. Quantum mechanics. Solution to Schrödinger's equation for the hydrogen atom at different energy levels.

Quantum mechanics

The brighter areas represent a higher probability of finding an electron. Quantum mechanics gradually arose from Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem (reported 1859) and Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which offered a quantum-based theory to explain the photoelectric effect (reported 1887).

Early quantum theory was profoundly reconceived in the mid-1920s. The reconceived theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Neutron.