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Memorial Sloan Kettering does not assume any risk whatsoever for your use of this website or the information contained herein. Memorial Sloan Kettering does not record specific website user information and does not contact users of this website. Backgrounds and monographs. All content © 2012-2013 ORIVeDA • All rights reserved.Nothing is allowed to be reproduced without permission. • Introduction• Definition• History• Research• Bio-active ingredients• Anti-oxidants• Fukushima and radioactive contamination• Summary of actions• The future of Chaga• References Introduction In the late 1990′s Chaga was virtually unknown as a dietary supplement, with the exception of Russia and a few countries in SE-Asia (mainly Korea, China and Japan).
Daniel Vitalis, a successful ‘health-guru’ Now, it is 2012 and Chaga is one of the hypes of the day, a hype fueled both online and offline by health-gurus like David Wolfe, Daniel Vitalis and Cass Ingram. ‘King of Herbs‘ it is called, and if you have to believe all the health claims made on the internet, Chaga is the cure for almost everything. While doing the research for this monograph we went back to the basis: well-known peer-reviewed research and verifiable facts. Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum  .
The botulinum toxin can cause a severe flaccid paralytic disease in humans and animals . C. botulinum is a diverse group of bacteria initially grouped together by their ability to produce botulinum toxin and now known as four distinct groups, C. botulinum groups I-IV. C. botulinum groups I-IV as well as some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii are the bacteria responsible for producing botulinum toxin .
C. botulinum is responsible for forborne botulism (ingestion of preformed toxin), infant botulism (intestinal infection with toxin forming C. botulinum), and wound botulism (infection of a wound with C. botulinum). C. botulinum produces heat resistant endospores that are commonly found in soil and allow for survival in adverse conditions . Biology Clostridium botulinum is a rod-shaped microorganism. Obligate anaerobe. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically.
They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest. 2: Obligate anaerobes are poisoned by oxygen, so they gather at the bottom of the tube where the oxygen concentration is lowest. 3: Facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen because they can metabolise energy aerobically or anaerobically. They gather mostly at the top because aerobic respiration generates more ATP than either fermentation or anaerobic respiration. 4: Microaerophiles need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. However, they are poisoned by high concentrations of oxygen. They gather in the upper part of the test tube but not the very top. 5: Aerotolerant organisms do not require oxygen as they metabolise energy anaerobically. Oxygen sensitivity  Examples Extraction: making red wines. Extraction: making red wines Machine harvested Merlot (left) and hand-picked Pinot Noir (right) One of the key issues in red wine making is getting the flavour and colour out of the skins.
It’s called extraction, and how you do it is a vitally important factor in the quality of your wines. Here’s a brief illustrated explanation of this important subject. The pulp of almost all wine grapes is colourless (the exception here being the rare teinturier grapes, such as Alicante Bouschet and Sousão, which have coloured insides). There are many different ways of making red wine, but a common theme to all is the goal of extracting these colour and flavour components from the skins without extracting too much: a common analogy used here is making a brew, where the goal is to take out just enough flavour from the tea leaves, but not letting it stew too long.
Pinot Noir grapes entering and leaving a crusher-destemmer Red grapes removed from fermenters, ready for pressing Back to top. Eartherbs L.L.C. » Home » Products » Chaga Mushroom. Betulinic_Acid_induced_tumor_killing.pdf.