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X-rays are basically the same thing as visible light rays.
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization , chipping, or other erosive processes. Examples of ablative materials are described below and include spacecraft material for ascent and atmospheric reentry , ice and snow in glaciology , biological tissues in medicine , and passive fire protection materials. Ablation near the electrode in a flashtube .
The debate over nuclear power plants has been going on for some time, with nuclear physicists and lawmakers alike throwing around terms like nuclear fission, critical mass, and chain reaction . But how does nuclear fission work, exactly? In the 1930s, scientists discovered that some nuclear reactions can be initiated and controlled.
In Compton scattering, an incoming photon of energy E (shown in black) undergoes an elastic collision with a weakly bound (assumed free) outer-shell electron (shown in blue). The electron is scattered with kinetic energy K at an angle j with respect to the x-axis (direction of incoming photon) while the scattered photon of energy E' (shown in green) makes an angle q with respect to the x-axis. Because energy has been given to the scattered electron, the scattered photon will have a lower energy and therefore a longer wavelength than the incident photon.
We're now starting to talk about quantum mechanics, the physics of the very small. Planck's constant
Plasmas exist in a wide range of settings and varieties. Most stars are made up of plasma.
25 March 2009—On Monday, scientists at the American Chemical Society (ACS) meeting in Salt Lake City announced a series of experimental results that they argue confirms controversial ”cold fusion” claims. Chief among the findings was new evidence presented by U.S. Navy researchers of high-energy neutrons in a now-standard cold fusion experimental setup—electrodes connected to a power source, immersed in a solution containing both palladium and ”heavy water.”
The National Ignition Facility, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The target assembly for NIF's first integrated ignition experiment is mounted in the cryogenic target positioning system, or cryoTARPOS. The two triangle-shaped arms form a shroud around the cold target to protect it until they open five seconds before a shot.
LIVERMORE, California – It may look like one of Michael Bay's Transformers, but this mass of machinery could soon be the birthplace of a baby star right here on Earth.
How scientists brought the power of the Sun to Earth
February 2011 Photons & Fusion is a monthly review of science and technology at the National Ignition Facility & Photon Science Directorate.
The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus (in contrast with fission power ).
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore in California was designed with a specific goal: to use high-powered lasers to ignite a fusion reaction that releases more energy than the one million joules needed to start it. Now, in a pair of papers appearing in Physical Review Letters (Kline et al. and Glenzer et al. ), scientists at NIF are reporting some of the first tests at the new facility.
(Updated October 2012) Fusion power offers the prospect of an almost inexhaustible source of energy for future generations, but it also presents so far insurmountable scientific and engineering challenges. The main hope is centred on tokamak reactors which confine a deuterium-tritium plasma magnetically.