4 humours in respective order: choleric, melancholic, sanguine, and phlegmatic.
The Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) is a self-assessed personality questionnaire designed to help people better understand themselves and others. It was first introduced in the book Please Understand Me . The KTS is closely associated with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); however, there are significant practical and theoretical differences between the two personality questionnaires and their associated different descriptions. [ edit ] Four temperaments David Keirsey expanded on the ancient study of temperament by Hippocrates and Plato . In his works, Keirsey used the names suggested by Plato: Artisan (iconic), Guardian (pistic), Idealist (noetic), and Rational (dianoetic).
The Rational temperament is one of the four temperaments defined by David Keirsey . Correlating with the NT (intuitive–thinking) Myers-Briggs types, the Rational temperament comprises the following role variants (listed with their corresponding Myers-Briggs types): Architect ( INTP ), Fieldmarshal ( ENTJ ), Inventor ( ENTP ), and Mastermind ( INTJ ). [ 1 ] [ edit ] Description
David West Keirsey ( pron.: / ˈ k ɜr z iː / ; born August 31, 1921 in Oklahoma ), is an internationally renowned psychologist , a professor emeritus at California State University, Fullerton , and the author of several books. In his most popular publications, Please Understand Me (1978, co-authored by Marilyn Bates) and the revised and expanded second volume Please Understand Me II (1998), he laid out a self-assessed personality questionnaire, known as the Keirsey Temperament Sorter , which links human behaviorial patterns to four temperaments and sixteen character types.
The Idealist temperament is one of four temperaments defined by David Keirsey .
The Guardian temperament is one of four temperaments defined by David Keirsey .
The Artisan temperament is one of four temperaments defined by David Keirsey .
Five temperaments is a theory in psychology , that expands upon the Four Temperaments proposed in ancient medical theory.
Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait in the study of psychology , manifested by characteristics of anxiety, moodiness, worry, envy and jealousy. [ 1 ] Individuals who score high on neuroticism are more likely than the average to experience such feelings as anxiety , anger , envy , guilt , and depressed mood . [ 2 ] They respond more poorly to environmental stress , and are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. They are often self-conscious and shy , and they may have trouble controlling urges and delaying gratification .
Agreeableness is a personality trait manifesting itself in individual behavioral characteristics that are perceived as kind, sympathetic, cooperative, warm and considerate. [ 1 ] In contemporary personality psychology , agreeableness is one of the five major dimensions of personality structure, reflecting individual differences in cooperation and social harmony. [ 2 ] People who score high on this dimension tend to believe that most people are honest, decent, and trustworthy. People scoring low on agreeableness are generally less concerned with others' well-being and report having less empathy . Therefore, these individuals are less likely to go out of their way to help others.
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. The terms introversion and extraversion were first popularized by Carl Jung , [ 1 ] although both the popular understanding and psychological usage differ from his original intent. Extraversion tends to be manifested in outgoing, talkative, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved, quiet, shy behavior. [ 2 ] Virtually all comprehensive models of personality include these concepts in various forms.
The Two-Factor Model of Personality is a widely used psychological factor analysis measurement of personality , behavior and temperament . It most often consists of a matrix measuring the factor of introversion and extroversion with some form of people versus task orientation. [ edit ] Beginnings
not to be confused with "Schulz" or "Schultz", see also William Schulz (disambiguation) William Schutz (December 19, 1925 in Chicago , Illinois [ 1 ] [ 2 ] - November 9, 2002 in Muir Beach , California ) was an American psychologist .
Conscientiousness is the state of being thorough, careful, or vigilant; it implies a desire to do a task well. [ 1 ] Conscientiousness is also one trait of the five-factor model of personality , and is manifested in characteristic behaviors such as being efficient, organized, neat, and systematic. [ 2 ] It includes such elements as self-discipline , carefulness, thoroughness, self-organization , deliberation (the tendency to think carefully before acting), and need for achievement . It is an aspect of what has traditionally been called character . Conscientious individuals are generally hard working and reliable. When taken to an extreme, they may also be "workaholics", perfectionists , and compulsive in their behavior. People who score low on conscientiousness are not necessarily lazy or immoral, but they tend to be more laid back, less goal-oriented, and less driven by success. [ edit ] Personality models
Openness to experience is one of the domains which are used to describe human personality in the Five Factor Model . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Openness involves active imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, preference for variety, and intellectual curiosity. [ 3 ] A great deal of psychometric research has demonstrated that these qualities are statistically correlated. [ citation needed ] Thus, openness can be viewed as a global personality trait consisting of a set of specific traits, habits, and tendencies that cluster together. Openness tends to be normally distributed with a small number of individuals scoring extremely high or low on the trait, and most people scoring moderately. [ citation needed ] People who score low on openness are considered to be closed to experience .