Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalytic theory and B.F. Skinner 's Behaviorism . [ citation needed ] With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance , this approach emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. In the context of the tertiary sector beginning to produce more than the secondary sector , the humanistic psychology, which was sometimes referred to as a "third force," as distinct from the two more traditional approaches to psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism , began to be seen as more relevant than the older approaches.
Free will is the ability of agents to make choices unconstrained by certain factors. Factors of historical concern have included metaphysical constraints (for example, logical, nomological, or theological determinism ), physical constraints (for example, chains or imprisonment), social constraints (for example, threat of punishment or censure, or structural constraints), and mental constraints (for example, compulsions or phobias, neurological disorders, or genetic predispositions). The principle of free will has religious , legal , ethical , and scientific implications. [ 1 ] For example, in the religious realm, free will implies that individual will and choices can coexist with an omnipotent divinity .
Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology .
Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs , a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization. [ 2 ] Maslow was a psychology professor at Brandeis University , Brooklyn College , New School for Social Research and Columbia University . He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a "bag of symptoms." [ 3 ]