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Behaviorism (or behaviourism ), is an approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory. [ 1 ] It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to "mentalistic" psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov ( Russian : Ива́н Петро́вич Па́влов ; 26 September [ O.S. 14 September] 1849 – 27 February 1936) was a famous Russian physiologist . From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual brilliance along with an unusual energy which he named "the instinct for research". [ 1 ] Inspired when the progressive ideas which D. I.
Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning ) is a form of learning in which the conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus or US. (A stimulus is a factor that causes a response in an organism.) The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. [ 1 ] The US is usually a biologically significant stimulus such as food or pain that elicits a response from the start; this is called the unconditioned response or UR.
Burrhus Frederic "B.
Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning ) is a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behaviour may change in form, frequency, or strength.
Karen Horney ( pron.: / ˈ h ɔr n aɪ / ) [ 1 ] [ 2 ] born Danielsen (16 September 1885 – 4 December 1952) was a German psychoanalyst. Her theories questioned some traditional Freudian views, particularly her theory of sexuality, as well as the instinct orientation of psychoanalysis and its genetic psychology.