Aqua vitae. Artist's representation of distillation apparatus for aqua vitae, from Liber de arte Distillandi, by Hieronymus Brunschwig, 1512.
Aqua vitae /ˌeɪkwə ˈvaɪtiː/ (Latin for "water of vitality") or aqua vita is an archaic name for a concentrated aqueous solution of ethanol. The term was in wide use during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, although its origin is undoubtedly much earlier, having been used by Saint Patrick and his fellow monks to refer to both the alcohol and the waters of baptism.
This Latin term appears in a wide array of dialectical forms throughout all lands and people conquered by ancient Rome. Spagyric. Etymology Origin: Greek: from spao = I collect and ageiro = I extract.  It is a term probably first coined by Paracelsus.
Iatrochemistry. Frontispiece to Thomas Willis' 1663 book "Diatribae duae medico-philosophicae - quarum prior agit de fermentatione", a treatise on fermentation as a mysterious key to transformations (from mash to beer or from health to fevers), engraved and published by Gerbrandus Schagen in Amsterdam Iatrochemistry (or chemical medicine) is a branch of both chemistry and medicine.
The word "Iatro" was the Greek word "doctor" or "medicine. " Having its roots in alchemy, iatrochemistry seeks to provide chemical solutions to diseases and medical ailments. This area of science has fallen out of use in Europe since the rise of modern establishment medicine. However, iatrochemistry was popular between 1525 and 1660, especially in Flanders. Allopathic medicine. Allopathic medicine is an expression commonly used by homeopaths and proponents of other forms of alternative medicine to refer to mainstream medical use of pharmacologically active agents or physical interventions to treat or suppress symptoms or pathophysiologic processes of diseases or conditions. The expression was coined in 1810 by the creator of homeopathy, Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843). In such circles, the expression "allopathic medicine" is still used to refer to "the broad category of medical practice that is sometimes called Western medicine, biomedicine, evidence-based medicine, or modern medicine" (see the article on scientific medicine). Etymology Allopathic medicine and allopathy (from the Greek prefix ἄλλος, állos, "other", "different" + the suffix πάϑος, páthos, "suffering") are terms coined in the early 19th century by Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, as a synonym for mainstream medicine.
Cortical homunculus. A cortical sensory homunculus A cortical homunculus is a pictorial representation of the anatomical divisions of the primary motor cortex (i.e., portion of the human brain responsible for the processing and integration of motor information) and the primary somatosensory cortex (i.e., portion of the human brain responsible for the processing and integration of tactile information).
The cortical homunculus is a visual representation of the concept of "the body within the brain"—that one's hand or face exists as much as a series of nerve structures or a "neuron concept", as it exists as a physical form. This concept relates to many neuro-biological phenomena including phantom limb and body integrity identity disorder. Mandrake (plant) The alkaloid chemicals contained in the root include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine.
These chemicals are anticholinergics, hallucinogens, and hypnotics.Anticholinergic properties can lead to asphyxiation. Ingesting mandrake root is likely to have other adverse effects such as vomiting and diarrhea. The alkaloid concentration varies between plant samples, and accidental poisoning is likely to occur. Two references to דודאים (dûdã'im)—literally meaning "love plant"—occur in the Jewish scriptures.
Chinese alchemy. Chinese alchemy is a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation that developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body.
According to original texts such as the Cantong qi, the body is understood as the focus of cosmological processes summarized in the five agents, or wu xing, the observation and cultivation of which leads the practitioner into greater alignment with the operation of the Tao, the great cosmological principle of everything. Rasayana. Rasāyana, रसायन is a Sanskrit word, with literal meaning: Path (āyana) of essence (rasa).
It is a term that in early ayurvedic medicine means the science of lengthening lifespan, and in later (post 8th-century) works sometimes refers to Indian alchemy. History Significant progress in alchemy was made in ancient India. Will Durant wrote in Our Oriental Heritage: An 11th-century Persian chemist and physician named Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī reported that "They have a science similar to alchemy which is quite peculiar to them. Hermes Trismegistus. Hermes Trismegistus (Ancient Greek: Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος, "thrice-greatest Hermes"; Latin: Mercurius ter Maximus) is the purported author of the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism.
Origin and identity He may be a representation of the syncretic combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth. In Hellenistic Egypt, the Greeks recognised the congruence of their god Hermes with Thoth. Subsequently the two gods were worshipped as one in what had been the Temple of Thoth in Khemnu, which the Greeks called Hermopolis. Both Thoth and Hermes were gods of writing and of magic in their respective cultures. Thus, the Greek god of interpretive communication was combined with the Egyptian god of wisdom as a patron of astrology and alchemy.
In addition, both gods were psychopomps; guiding souls to the afterlife. Thrice Great Hermetica. Scope The term particularly applies to the Corpus Hermeticum, Marsilio Ficino's Latin translation in fourteen tracts, of which eight early printed editions appeared before 1500 and a further twenty-two by 1641. This collection, which includes the Pœmandres and some addresses of Hermes to disciples Tat, Ammon and Asclepius, was said to have originated in the school of Ammonius Saccas and to have passed through the keeping of Michael Psellus: it is preserved in fourteenth century manuscripts. The last three tracts in modern editions were translated independently from another manuscript by Ficino's contemporary Lodovico Lazzarelli (1447–1500) and first printed in 1507.
Extensive quotes of similar material are found in classical authors such as Joannes Stobaeus. Parts of the Hermetica appeared in the 4th-century Gnostic library found in Nag Hammadi. Character and antiquity Later history Standard editions Aqua regia. Freshly prepared aqua regia to remove metal salt deposits. Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. Here, fresh aqua regia has been added to these NMR tubes to remove all traces of organic material. Aqua regia (Latin and Ancient Italian, lit. "royal water"), aqua regis (Latin, lit. Philosopher's stone. History Mention of the philosophers' stone in writing can be found as far back as Cheirokmeta by Zosimos of Panopolis (c. 300 AD). Alchemical writers assign a longer history.
Elias Ashmole and the anonymous author of Gloria Mundi (1620) claim that its history goes back to Adam who acquired the knowledge of the stone directly from God. This knowledge was said to be passed down through biblical patriarchs, giving them their longevity. Numerology. Numerology is any belief in the divine, mystical or other special relationship between a number and some coinciding events. It has many systems and traditions and beliefs. Numerology and numerological divination by systems such as isopsephy were popular among early mathematicians, such as Pythagoras, but are no longer considered part of mathematics and are regarded as pseudomathematics or pseudoscience by modern scientists. Today, numerology is often associated with the paranormal, alongside astrology and similar divinatory arts. Despite the long history of numerological ideas, the word "numerology" is not recorded in English before c.1907. The term numerologist is also used derogatorily for those perceived to place excess faith in numerical patterns (and draw scientifically unsound inferences from them), even if those people do not practice traditional numerology.
History Modern numerology has various antecedents. The Essentials of Buddha Dhamma in Meditative Practice. Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta — Impermanence, suffering and Egolessness — are the three essential characteristics of things in the Teaching of the Buddha. If you know Anicca correctly, you will know Dukkha as its corollary and Anatta as ultimate truth. It takes time to understand the three together.
Classical element. Segment of the macrocosm showing the elemental spheres of terra (earth), aqua (water), aer (air), and ignis (fire). Robert Fludd. 1617. Many philosophies and worldviews have a set of classical elements believed to reflect the simplest essential parts and principles of which anything can consist or upon which the constitution and fundamental powers of everything are based. Most frequently, classical elements refer to ancient concepts which some science writers compare to the modern states of matter, relating earth to the solid state, water to liquid, air to gaseous and fire to plasma. Historians trace the evolution of modern theory pertaining to the chemical elements, as well as chemical compounds and mixtures of chemical substances to medieval, and Greek models.
Many concepts once thought to be analogous, such as the Chinese Wu Xing, are now understood more figuratively. Sulfur. Sulfur occurs naturally as the pure element (native sulfur) and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their distinct, brightly colored polyhedron shapes. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China and Egypt. Fumes from burning sulfur were used as fumigants, and sulfur-containing medicinal mixtures were used as balms and antiparasitics. Corpuscularianism. Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposed all matter to be composed of minute particles, which became important in the seventeenth century. Among the leading corpuscularians were Pierre Gassendi, Robert Boyle, and John Locke. Corpuscularianism is similar to the theory of atomism, except that where atoms were supposed to be indivisible, corpuscles could in principle be divided.
In this manner, for example, it was theorized that mercury could penetrate into metals and modify their inner structure, a step on the way towards the production of gold by transmutation. Salt (chemistry) There are several varieties of salts. Salts that hydrolyze to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are basic salts, whilst those that hydrolyze to produce hydronium ions in water are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those that are neither acid nor basic salts.
Zwitterions contain an anionic centre and a cationic centre in the same molecule, but are not considered to be salts. Alchemy. The Emerald Tablet, a key text of Western Alchemy, in a 17th-century edition Alchemy is an influential philosophical tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers.
Alchemy 3, Gold, The Philosopher's Stone, The Elixir. 1.7 Gold In heaven there is an upside down fountain. In it a flame is burning day and night.This flame is burning eternallyand does not need a wick or oil.Day and night the flame is burning,the entire year,every season,and does not know change.Paltu Sahib. Mercury (element) Quicksilver: a history of the use ... - Richard M. Swiderski.