Aqua vitae. Artist's representation of distillation apparatus for aqua vitae, from Liber de arte Distillandi, by Hieronymus Brunschwig, 1512.
Aqua vitae /ˌeɪkwə ˈvaɪtiː/ (Latin for "water of vitality") or aqua vita is an archaic name for a concentrated aqueous solution of ethanol. The term was in wide use during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, although its origin is undoubtedly much earlier, having been used by Saint Patrick and his fellow monks to refer to both the alcohol and the waters of baptism.
This Latin term appears in a wide array of dialectical forms throughout all lands and people conquered by ancient Rome. Generally, the term is a generic name for all types of distillates, and eventually came to refer specifically to distillates of alcoholic beverages and liquors. Aqua vitae was typically prepared by distilling wine; it was sometimes called "spirits of wine" in English texts, a name for brandy that had been repeatedly distilled. See also References External links Spagyric. Etymology Origin: Greek: from spao = I collect and ageiro = I extract.  It is a term probably first coined by Paracelsus.
Iatrochemistry. Frontispiece to Thomas Willis' 1663 book "Diatribae duae medico-philosophicae - quarum prior agit de fermentatione", a treatise on fermentation as a mysterious key to transformations (from mash to beer or from health to fevers), engraved and published by Gerbrandus Schagen in Amsterdam Iatrochemistry (or chemical medicine) is a branch of both chemistry and medicine.
The word "Iatro" was the Greek word "doctor" or "medicine. " Having its roots in alchemy, iatrochemistry seeks to provide chemical solutions to diseases and medical ailments. Allopathic medicine. Cortical homunculus. A cortical sensory homunculus A cortical homunculus is a pictorial representation of the anatomical divisions of the primary motor cortex (i.e., portion of the human brain responsible for the processing and integration of motor information) and the primary somatosensory cortex (i.e., portion of the human brain responsible for the processing and integration of tactile information).
The cortical homunculus is a visual representation of the concept of "the body within the brain"—that one's hand or face exists as much as a series of nerve structures or a "neuron concept", as it exists as a physical form. This concept relates to many neuro-biological phenomena including phantom limb and body integrity identity disorder. The reason for the distorted appearance of the homunculus is that the amount of cerebral tissue or cortex devoted to a given body region is proportional to how richly innervated that region is, not to its size.
Types Motor cortex Somatosensory cortex Dr. Mandrake (plant) The alkaloid chemicals contained in the root include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine.
These chemicals are anticholinergics, hallucinogens, and hypnotics.Anticholinergic properties can lead to asphyxiation. Ingesting mandrake root is likely to have other adverse effects such as vomiting and diarrhea. The alkaloid concentration varies between plant samples, and accidental poisoning is likely to occur. Two references to דודאים (dûdã'im)—literally meaning "love plant"—occur in the Jewish scriptures. The Septuagint translates דודאים (dûdã'im) as μανδραγόρας (mandragoras), and Vulgate follows Septuagint. Chinese alchemy. Chinese alchemy is a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation that developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body.
According to original texts such as the Cantong qi, the body is understood as the focus of cosmological processes summarized in the five agents, or wu xing, the observation and cultivation of which leads the practitioner into greater alignment with the operation of the Tao, the great cosmological principle of everything. Therefore the traditional view in China is that alchemy focuses mainly on the purification of one's spirit and body in the hopes of gaining immortality through the practice of Qigong and/or consumption and use of various concoctions known as alchemical medicines or elixirs, each of which having different purposes.
According to J.C. Rasayana. Rasāyana, रसायन is a Sanskrit word, with literal meaning: Path (āyana) of essence (rasa).
It is a term that in early ayurvedic medicine means the science of lengthening lifespan, and in later (post 8th-century) works sometimes refers to Indian alchemy. Rasayana formulae Puri has given detailed account of Classical formulations such as Amrit Rasayana, Brahm Rasayana, Jawahar Mohra, Kamdugdha Ras, Laxami Vilas Ras, Laxman Vilas Ras, Madanoday Modak, Makrdhawaj vati, Manmath Ras, Mukta Panchamrit Rasayana, Nari Kalyan Pak, Navjeevan Ras, Navratna Ras, Navratnakalp Amrit, Panchamrit Ras, Paradi Ras, Ramchuramni Ras, Rattivalbh Pak, Shukar Amrit Vati, Smritisagar Ras, Suvarn Malini Vasant, Suvarn Vasant Malti, Swapanmehtank, Vasant Kusmakar Ras, Visha Rasaayana, Vrihda Vangeshwar Rasa. Rasayan has meanings beyond healthful substances. Rasayan Shastr in Ancient India was much less developed than today. Hermes Trismegistus.
Hermes Trismegistus (Ancient Greek: Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος, "thrice-greatest Hermes"; Latin: Mercurius ter Maximus) is the purported author of the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism.
Origin and identity He may be a representation of the syncretic combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth. In Hellenistic Egypt, the Greeks recognised the congruence of their god Hermes with Thoth. Subsequently the two gods were worshipped as one in what had been the Temple of Thoth in Khemnu, which the Greeks called Hermopolis. Both Thoth and Hermes were gods of writing and of magic in their respective cultures. Thus, the Greek god of interpretive communication was combined with the Egyptian god of wisdom as a patron of astrology and alchemy.
In addition, both gods were psychopomps; guiding souls to the afterlife. Hermetica. Scope The term particularly applies to the Corpus Hermeticum, Marsilio Ficino's Latin translation in fourteen tracts, of which eight early printed editions appeared before 1500 and a further twenty-two by 1641. This collection, which includes the Pœmandres and some addresses of Hermes to disciples Tat, Ammon and Asclepius, was said to have originated in the school of Ammonius Saccas and to have passed through the keeping of Michael Psellus: it is preserved in fourteenth century manuscripts. The last three tracts in modern editions were translated independently from another manuscript by Ficino's contemporary Lodovico Lazzarelli (1447–1500) and first printed in 1507.
Extensive quotes of similar material are found in classical authors such as Joannes Stobaeus. Aqua regia. Freshly prepared aqua regia to remove metal salt deposits.
Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. Here, fresh aqua regia has been added to these NMR tubes to remove all traces of organic material. Aqua regia (Latin and Ancient Italian, lit. "royal water"), aqua regis (Latin, lit. "king's water"), or nitro-hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive mixture of acids, a fuming yellow or red solution. Philosopher's stone. History Mention of the philosophers' stone in writing can be found as far back as Cheirokmeta by Zosimos of Panopolis (c. 300 AD). Alchemical writers assign a longer history.
Elias Ashmole and the anonymous author of Gloria Mundi (1620) claim that its history goes back to Adam who acquired the knowledge of the stone directly from God. This knowledge was said to be passed down through biblical patriarchs, giving them their longevity. The legend of the stone was also compared to the biblical history of the Temple of Solomon and the rejected cornerstone described in Psalm 118. Middle Ages Numerology. Numerology is any belief in the divine, mystical or other special relationship between a number and some coinciding events.
It has many systems and traditions and beliefs. Numerology and numerological divination by systems such as isopsephy were popular among early mathematicians, such as Pythagoras, but are no longer considered part of mathematics and are regarded as pseudomathematics or pseudoscience by modern scientists. Today, numerology is often associated with the paranormal, alongside astrology and similar divinatory arts. Despite the long history of numerological ideas, the word "numerology" is not recorded in English before c.1907. The term numerologist is also used derogatorily for those perceived to place excess faith in numerical patterns (and draw scientifically unsound inferences from them), even if those people do not practice traditional numerology.
History Modern numerology has various antecedents. The Essentials of Buddha Dhamma in Meditative Practice. Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta — Impermanence, suffering and Egolessness — are the three essential characteristics of things in the Teaching of the Buddha. If you know Anicca correctly, you will know Dukkha as its corollary and Anatta as ultimate truth. It takes time to understand the three together. Classical element. Segment of the macrocosm showing the elemental spheres of terra (earth), aqua (water), aer (air), and ignis (fire). Robert Fludd. 1617. Many philosophies and worldviews have a set of classical elements believed to reflect the simplest essential parts and principles of which anything can consist or upon which the constitution and fundamental powers of everything are based. Most frequently, classical elements refer to ancient concepts which some science writers compare to the modern states of matter, relating earth to the solid state, water to liquid, air to gaseous and fire to plasma. Historians trace the evolution of modern theory pertaining to the chemical elements, as well as chemical compounds and mixtures of chemical substances to medieval, and Greek models.
Many concepts once thought to be analogous, such as the Chinese Wu Xing, are now understood more figuratively. Sulfur. Sulfur occurs naturally as the pure element (native sulfur) and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their distinct, brightly colored polyhedron shapes. Corpuscularianism. Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposed all matter to be composed of minute particles, which became important in the seventeenth century. Salt (chemistry) There are several varieties of salts. Salts that hydrolyze to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are basic salts, whilst those that hydrolyze to produce hydronium ions in water are acidic salts.
Neutral salts are those that are neither acid nor basic salts. Zwitterions contain an anionic centre and a cationic centre in the same molecule, but are not considered to be salts. Alchemy. Alchemy 3, Gold, The Philosopher's Stone, The Elixir. 1.7 Gold. Mercury (element) Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide).
Quicksilver: a history of the use ... - Richard M. Swiderski. Alchemy Electronic Dictionary: Find Out the Meaning of Arcane Words and Ciphers Instantly! To find out the meaning of a word, select the beginning letter: Or select the symbol for which you would like to see a definition: For Alchemy Lab website assistance, click ablution The process of washing a solid with a liquid, usually in water. Spiritually and psychologically, it is facing one's emotions and letting feelings flow, so that innocence and purity can be restored.