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Man Ray. Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky, August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American modernist artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France.

Man Ray

He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal. He produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, and he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Ray is also noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself.[1] Life and career[edit] Background and early life[edit] During his career as an artist, Man Ray allowed few details of his early life or family background to be known to the public. Man Ray's father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home. First artistic endeavors[edit] The Misunderstood (1938), collection of the Man Ray Estate Man Ray displayed artistic and mechanical abilities during childhood.

Max Ernst. Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.

Max Ernst

A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Max Ernst was born in Brühl, near Cologne, the third of nine children of a middle-class Catholic family. His father Philipp was a teacher of the deaf and an amateur painter, a devout Christian and a strict disciplinarian.

In 1914 Ernst met Hans Arp in Cologne. Dada and surrealism[edit] Ernst was demobilized in 1918 and returned to Cologne. Ernst and Luise's son Ulrich 'Jimmy' Ernst was born on 24 June 1920;[4] he also became a painter. Although apparently accepting the ménage à trois at first, Éluard eventually became more concerned about the affair. The next year he collaborated with Joan Miró on designs for Sergei Diaghilev. Ernst developed a fascination with birds that was prevalent in his work. World War II and later life[edit] L'Ange du Foyer, (1937) Selected works[edit] Leonora Carrington. Leonora Carrington OBE (6 April 1917 – 25 May 2011[1]) was a British-born–Mexican artist, surrealist painter and novelist.

Leonora Carrington

She lived most of her adult life in Mexico City, and was one of the last surviving participants in the Surrealist movement of the 1930s.[2] Early life[edit] Carrington was born in Clayton Green, Chorley, Lancashire,[3][4] England. Her father was a wealthy textile manufacturer,[3][5] and her mother, Maureen (née Moorhead), was Irish.[3] She had three brothers: Patrick, Gerald, and Arthur.[6][7] Educated by governesses, tutors, and nuns, she was expelled from two schools, including New Hall School, Chelmsford,[8] for her rebellious behaviour, until her family sent her to Florence where she attended Mrs Penrose's Academy of Art. Max Ernst[edit] Seeing Max Ernst's work in the 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition in London, Carrington was immediately attracted to the Surrealist artist before she even met him. Mexico[edit] "I didn't have time to be anyone's muse...

Roberto Matta. Dorothea Tanning. Tableaux de Roberto Matta. Roberto Matta — The open cube. Giorgio de Chirico. Giorgio de Chirico (Italian: [ˈdʒordʒo deˈkiːriko]; July 10, 1888 – November 20, 1978) was a Greek-born Italian artist.

Giorgio de Chirico

In the years before World War I, he founded the scuola metafisica art movement, which profoundly influenced the surrealists. After 1919, he became interested in traditional painting techniques, and worked in a neoclassical or neo-Baroque style, while frequently revisiting the metaphysical themes of his earlier work. Life and works[edit] De Chirico[note 1] was born in Volos, Greece, to a Genovese mother and a Sicilian father.[1] After studying art in Athens—mainly under the guidance of the influential Greek painter Georgios Roilos and Georgios Jakobides—and Florence, he moved to Germany in 1906, following his father's death in 1905.

He entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, where he read the writings of the philosophers Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer and Otto Weininger and studied the works of Arnold Böcklin and Max Klinger. Legacy[edit] Style[edit] Tableaux de Giorgio De Chirico. Fabrizio Clerici. Salvador Dalí. Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marqués de Dalí de Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dalí (Catalan pronunciation: [səɫβəˈðo ðəˈɫi]), was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres, Spain.

Salvador Dalí

Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters.[1][2] His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything that is gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes"[3] to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descended from the Moors. Dalí was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. Biography Early life Madrid and Paris. Tableaux de Salvador Dali.

Yves Tanguy. Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955), known as Yves Tanguy, was a French surrealist painter.

Yves Tanguy

Biography[edit] Tanguy, the son of a retired navy captain, was born at the Ministry of Naval Affairs on Place de la Concorde in Paris, France. His parents were both of Breton origin. After his father's death in 1908, his mother moved back to her native Locronan, Finistère, and he ended up spending much of his youth living with various relatives. In 1918, Yves Tanguy briefly joined the merchant navy before being drafted into the Army, where he befriended Jacques Prévert. Tanguy had a habit of being completely absorbed by the current painting he was working on. Through his friend Jacques Prévert, in around 1924 Tanguy was introduced into the circle of surrealist artists around André Breton. Throughout the 1930s, Tanguy adopted the bohemian lifestyle of the struggling artist with gusto, leading eventually to the failure of his first marriage.

Style and legacy[edit] Vite! Joan Miró. Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, and a manifestation of Catalan pride.

Joan Miró

In numerous interviews dating from the 1930s onwards, Miró expressed contempt for conventional painting methods as a way of supporting bourgeois society, and famously declared an "assassination of painting" in favour of upsetting the visual elements of established painting.[1] Biography[edit] Born into the families of a goldsmith and a watch-maker, he grew up in the Barri Gòtic neighborhood of Barcelona.[2] His father was Miquel Miró Adzerias and his mother was Dolors Ferrà.[3] He began drawing classes at the age of seven at a private school at Carrer del Regomir 13, a medieval mansion. In 1907 he enrolled at the fine art academy at La Llotja, to the dismay of his father. Career[edit] Illustration for Cavall Fort, a children's magazine in Catalan Miró initially went to business school as well as art school.

John Tunnard. John Samuel Tunnard (7 May 1900 – 12 December 1971) was an English Modernist designer and painter.

John Tunnard

He was the cousin of landscape architect Christopher Tunnard. Life[edit] John Tunnard was born in Sandy, Bedfordshire, and educated at Charterhouse School. He studied design at the Royal College of Art (1919–1923). In 1926, he married a fellow student, Mary May Robertson. During the 1920s he worked in various textile design jobs in Manchester — for Tootal, Broadhurst, Lee & Co, the carpet manufacturers, H&M Southwell, and John Lewis Partnership. In 1931 he exhibited at the Royal Academy and with the London Group, which he joined in 1934.

During World War II he was a conscientious objector, working briefly as a fisherman in 1939, then as an auxiliary coastguard for the duration of the war. From 1945 to 1965 he taught at the Penzance School of Art. Work[edit] In later life he became interested in space travel and entomology,[1] when he depicted satellites and moonscapes in his paintings. Alexander Calder. Early life[edit] Alexander "Sandy" Calder was born in Lawnton, Pennsylvania on July 22, 1898.

Alexander Calder

His father, Stirling Calder, was a well-known sculptor who created many public installations, a majority of them in nearby Philadelphia. Sandy Calder's grandfather, sculptor Alexander Milne Calder, was born in Scotland, immigrated to Philadelphia in 1868, and is best known for the colossal statue of William Penn on top of Philadelphia City Hall's tower. Sandy Calder's mother, Nanette (née Lederer), was a professional portrait artist, who had studied at the Académie Julian and the Sorbonne in Paris from around 1888 until 1893. She moved to Philadelphia where she met Stirling Calder while studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1902, Sandy Calder posed nude for his father’s sculpture The Man Cub, which is now located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. After Arizona, the Calder family moved to Pasadena, California.

Life and career[edit] The H.F. Artistic work[edit] Alberto Giacometti. Alberto Giacometti (Italian pronunciation: [alˈbɛrto dʒakoˈmetti]; 10 October 1901 – 11 January 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draughtsman, and printmaker.

Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti was born in the canton Graubünden's southerly alpine valley Val Bregaglia and came from an artistic background; his father, Giovanni, was a well-known post-Impressionist painter. Alberto was the eldest of four children and was interested in art from an early age. Early life[edit] Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, now part of the Swiss municipality of Stampa, near the Italian border. He was a descendant of Protestant refugees escaping the Italian Inquisition. In 1922 he moved to Paris, France, to study under the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, an associate of Auguste Rodin. Between 1936 and 1940, Giacometti concentrated his sculpting on the human head, focusing on the sitter's gaze. His paintings underwent a parallel procedure. Later years[edit] Current 100 Swiss Franc banknote, back Death[edit] Legacy[edit] Louise Bourgeois. She is recognized today as the founder of confessional art.[4] In the late 1940s, after moving to New York City with her American husband, Robert Goldwater, she turned to sculpture.

Though her works are abstract, they are suggestive of the human figure and express themes of betrayal, anxiety, and loneliness. Her work was wholly autobiographical, inspired by her childhood trauma of discovering that her English governess was also her father’s mistress.[4] Life[edit] Sculpture by Bourgeois in the Domestic Incidents group exhibit at London's Tate Modern Turbine Hall, 2006 Early life[edit] Bourgeois was born on 25 December 1911 in Paris, France.[5] She was the third child of four born to parents Josephine Fauriaux and Louis Bourgeois.[6] Her parents owned a gallery that dealt primarily in antique tapestries.

As a child, Bourgeois did not meet her father's expectations due to her lack of ability. Her mother died in 1932, while Bourgeois was studying mathematics. Middle years[edit] Later life[edit] Jean Arp. Jean Arp / Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French, or Alsatian, sculptor, painter, poet and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. When Arp spoke in German he referred to himself as "Hans", and when he spoke in French he referred to himself as "Jean". Many people believe that he was born Hans and later changed his name to Jean, but this is not the case. Early life[edit] Arp was born in Strasbourg as the son of a French mother and a German father, during the period following the Franco-Prussian War when the area was known as Alsace-Lorraine (Elsass-Lothringen in German) after France had ceded it to Germany in 1871.

Following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become Jean. In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, he went to Paris where he published his poetry for the first time. Career[edit] Arp was a founding member of the Dada movement in Zürich in 1916. Oeuvres de Jean Arp. Surrealism. Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality. " Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself and/or an idea/concept. [1] Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact.

Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. Founding of the movement[edit] Surrealist Manifesto[edit] Expansion[edit]