Figure 8 . Hierarchy of wine regions. The "A" icons next to class names indicate that the classes are abstract and cannot have any direct instances. The same class hierarchy would be incorrect if we omitted the word “region” from the class names. We cannot say that the class Alsace is a subclass of the class France : Alsace is not a kind of France. However, Alsace region is a kind of a French region.
Part 1 out of 4 This eBook was produced by Juliet Sutherland, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. The aim of this little work is practical, and it is put forth in the hope that it may be useful to the general reader and to the student of philosophy as an introduction and guide to the study of Bergson's thought. The war has led many to an interest in philosophy and to a study of its problems. Few modern thinkers will be found more fascinating, more suggestive and stimulating than Bergson, and it is hoped that perusal of the following pages will lead to a study of the writings of the philosopher himself.
At “A Research Culture for Ceramics” conference before Christmas 2001, Stuart Evans offered this comment for debate and discussion: “You do not have to produce good art as part of a practice based degree, you can produce bad art”. I felt he had put his finger on something I had observed — a difference between the criteria used to evaluate practice based PhDs in the arts, and the criteria used to evaluate practice. Expressed in such a succinct and bald form, his comment made me wonder how this had come about? And whether or not it is a problem? It seems to me that these issues are related to the difficulty we have in understanding practice in the arts in terms of research — the relation of research to studio practice amounting to new academic terrain: the concept “research” being traditionally associated with “knowledge”, and the relation between “knowledge” and studio practice being not at all clear.
This article revisits the concept of autopoiesis and examines its relation to cognition and life. We present a mathematical model of a 3D tesselation automaton, considered as a minimal example of autopoiesis. This leads us to a thesis T1: "An autopoietic system can be described as a random dynamical system, which is defined only within its organized autopoietic domain."
Metaknowledge or meta-knowledge is knowledge about a preselected knowledge. For the reason of different definitions of knowledge in the subject matter literature, meta-information is or is not included in meta-knowledge. Detailed cognitive, systemic and epistemic study of human knowledge requires a distinguishing of these concepts. but in the common language knowledge includes information, and, for example, bibliographic data are considered as a meta-knowledge. Meta-knowledge is a fundamental conceptual instrument in such research and scientific domains as, knowledge engineering , knowledge management , and others dealing with study and operations on knowledge, seen as a unified object /entities, abstracted from local conceptualizations and terminologies. Examples of the first-level individual meta-knowledge are methods of planning, modeling, tagging , learning and every modification of a domain knowledge .
Elizabeth A. Grosz is a feminist academic living and working in the USA. She is known for philosophical interpretations of the work of French philosophers Maurice Merleau-Ponty , Jacques Lacan , Jacques Derrida , Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze , as well as her readings of the works of French feminists, Luce Irigaray , Julia Kristeva and Michèle Le Dœuff .
A genre is, according to David Duff in his Modern Genre Theory (pp. xiii), "a recurring type or category of text, as defined by structural, thematic, and/or functional criteria." ( GenreTheoryCriteria ) Genre Theory occurs, following Duff, when we try to understand genres as forming "a coherent system of some kind; ... a theoretical model that offers a comprehensive list of genres and an explanation of the relations between them." Such theoretical models, starting with the systematic classifications of Aristotle's Poetics (see HistoryOfGenre ), form genre-systems . Genre theory has historically been most closely associated with critical approaches to the study of literature, but it has recently started to be used in studying (Duff, pp. xiii) "non-literary texts; notably film and media" as well as "speech genre". We will use the term much more broadly here, but will, for the moment, stay close to its roots in the study of literature.