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Zhou Dynasty. During the Zhou dynasty, the use of iron was introduced to China,[1] though this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze-ware making.

Zhou Dynasty

The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved into its modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period. History[edit] Foundation[edit] Western Zhou[edit] States of the Western Zhou dynasty King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Eastern Zhou[edit] Zheng He. Zheng He (1371–1433), formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming Dynasty.

Zheng He

Zheng commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, whose usurpation he assisted, he rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing (the capital was later moved to Beijing by Yongle). These voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad since the publication of Liang Qihao's Biography of Our Homeland's Great Navigator, Zheng He[3] in 1904.[4] A trilingual stele left by the navigator was discovered on the island of Sri Lanka shortly thereafter.

Xia Dynasty. Toltec. Archaeology[edit] Some archaeologists such as Richard Diehl, argue for the existence of a Toltec archaeological horizon characterized by certain stylistic traits associated with Tula, Hidalgo and extending to other cultures and polities in Mesoamerica.


Traits associated with this horizon are: The Mixteca-Puebla style of iconography, Tohil plumbate ceramic ware and Silho or X-Fine Orange Ware ceramics.[1] The presence of stylistic traits associated with Tula in Chichén Itzá is also taken as evidence for a Toltec horizon. Especially the nature of interaction between Tula and Chichén Itzá has been controversial with scholars arguing for either military conquest of Chichén Itzá by Toltecs, Chichén Itzá establishing Tula as a colony or only loose connections between the two. Tlaloc. Tlaloc (Classical Nahuatl: Tlālōc [ˈtɬaːloːk]) [1] was an important deity in Aztec religion; a god of rain, fertility, and water.


He was a beneficent god who gave life and sustenance, but he was also feared for his ability to send hail, thunder, and lightning, and for being the lord of the powerful element of water. Tlaloc is also associated with caves, springs, and mountains, in which he was believed to reside. He is known for having demanded child sacrifices.[2] Tikal. Tikal (/tiˈkäl/) (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centres of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization.


Teotihuacan. Coordinates: Teotihuacan /teɪˌoʊtiːwəˈkɑːn/,[1] also written Teotihuacán (Spanish.


Tenochtitlan. Tenochtitlan (Classical Nahuatl: Tenochtitlan [tenotʃˈtitɬan]) was an Aztec altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico.


Founded in 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century,[1] until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. When paired with Mexico, the name is a reference to Mexica, also known as "Aztecs" although they referred to themselves as Mexica. Tang Dynasty. History[edit] Establishment[edit] Administration and politics[edit] Initial reforms[edit] Taizong set out to solve internal problems within the government which had constantly plagued past dynasties.

Tang Dynasty

Building upon the Sui legal code, he issued a new legal code that subsequent Chinese dynasties would model theirs upon, as well as neighboring polities in Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. The Tang had three departments (Chinese: 省; pinyin: shěng), which were obliged to draft, review, and implement policies respectively. Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs Although the central and local governments kept an enormous number of records about land property in order to assess taxes, it became common practice in the Tang for literate and affluent people to create their own private documents and signed contracts. Sui Dynasty. The Sui dynasty (581–618 AD)[1] was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty.

Sui Dynasty

Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang dynasty. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing,581-605) and the later at Luoyang (605-614). His reign saw the reunification of Southern and Northern China and the construction of the Grand Canal.

Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various reforms including the Equal-field system, which was initiated to reduce the rich-poor social gap that resulted in enhanced agricultural productivity, as well as government centralisation and reforms, creating a new model of governance after centuries of division. Song Dynasty. The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao; Cantonese Jyutping: sung3 ciu4; IPA: [sʊ̂ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

Song Dynasty

It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty. It was the first government in world history to nationally issue banknotes or true paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. Sima Qian. Sima Qian (Szu-ma Chien; c. 145 or 135 BC – 86 BC) was a Chinese historian of the Han dynasty. He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his work, the Records of the Grand Historian, a Jizhuanti-style (纪传体) general history of China, covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to his time, during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. Although he worked as the Court Astrologer (Chinese: 太史令; Tàishǐ Lìng), later generations refer to him as the Grand Historian (Chinese: 太史公; taishigong or tai-shih-kung) for his monumental work; a work which in later generations would often only be somewhat tacitly or glancingly acknowledged as an achievement only made possible by his acceptance and endurance of punitive actions against him, including imprisonment, castration, and subjection to servility.

Early life and education[edit] As Han court official[edit] The Li Ling affair[edit] Shang Yang. Statue of Shang Yang Reforms[edit] He is credited by Han Feizi with the creation of two theories; Shang Dynasty. The Shang dynasty (Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (Chinese: 殷代; pinyin: Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Classic of History, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 BC to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 BC to 1046 BC.

The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 BC to 1046 BC. The Anyang site has yielded the earliest known body of Chinese writing, mostly divinations inscribed on oracle bones – turtle shells, ox scapulae, or other bones. Maya civilization. Uxmal, Nunnery Quadrangle Artist's copy of Bonampak Painting, Mexico, 700 C.E. Throne 1 of Piedras Negras The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for Maya script, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to AD 250), according to the Mesoamerican chronology, many Maya cities reached their highest state of development during the Classic period (c.

Han Dynasty. Etymology. Qin Dynasty. Pachacuti. Olmec. Olmec jadeite mask 1000–600 BCE. Ming Dynasty. Nahuatl. Nahuatl (/ˈnɑːwɑːtəl/;[5] Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈnaːwatɬ] ( Legalism (Chinese philosophy) Legalism was a philosophy emphasizing strict obedience to the legal system. Cusco. Cusco /ˈkuːzkoʊ/, often spelled Cuzco (Spanish: Cuzco, [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu or Qosqo, IPA: [ˈqɔsqɔ]), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.

Confucianism. Epi-Olmec culture. Important Epi-Olmec sites. Dos Pilas. Coordinates: Taoism. Chichen Itza.