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The Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046–256 BC; Chinese : 周朝 ; pinyin : Zhōu Cháo ; Wade–Giles : Chou 1 Ch'ao 2 [tʂóʊ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ] ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty . Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history , the actual political and military control of China by the Ji ( Chinese : 姬 ) family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou. During the Zhou Dynasty, the use of iron was introduced to China, [ 1 ] though this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze -ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved into its modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period . [ edit ] History
Zheng He (1371–1433), formerly romanized as Cheng Ho , was a Hui-Chinese court eunuch , mariner , explorer , diplomat and fleet admiral , who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia , South Asia , the Middle East , Somalia and the Swahili coast , collectively referred to as the "Voyages of Zheng He" from 1405 to 1433.
The Xia Dynasty ( Chinese : 夏 朝 ; pinyin : Xià Cháo ; Wade–Giles : Hsia-Ch'ao; IPA: [ɕiâ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯] ; c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE) is the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo Annals , Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian . The dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great [ 1 ] after Shun , the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him. The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE).
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula , in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca 800-1000 CE). The later Aztec culture saw the Toltecs as their intellectual and cultural predecessors and described Toltec culture emanating from Tōllān ['toːlːaːn] ( Nahuatl for Tula) as the epitome of civilization, indeed in the Nahuatl language the word "Tōltēcatl" [toːl'teːkat͡ɬ] (singular) or "Tōltēcah" [toːl'teːkaʔ] (plural) came to take on the meaning "artisan". The Aztec oral and pictographic tradition also described the history of the Toltec empire giving lists of rulers and their exploits.
For the fictional character from the Legends of Dune books, see Titan (Dune)#Tlaloc . Tlaloc ( Classical Nahuatl : Tlālōc [ˈtɬaːloːk] ) was an important deity in Aztec religion , a god of rain, fertility, and water. He was a beneficent god who gave life and sustenance, but he was also feared for his ability to send hail, thunder and lightning, and for being the lord of the powerful element of water.
Tikal ( /tiˈkäl/ ) ( Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centres of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization . It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala . Situated in the department of El Petén , the site is part of Guatemala's Tikal National Park and in 1979 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site . [ 2 ] Tikal was the capital of a conquest state that became one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient Maya. [ 3 ] Though monumental architecture at the site dates back as far as the 4th century BC, Tikal reached its apogee during the Classic Period , ca. 200 to 900 AD. During this time, the city dominated much of the Maya region politically, economically, and militarily, while interacting with areas throughout Mesoamerica such as the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in the distant Valley of Mexico .
Coordinates : Teotihuacan ( pronounced /ˈtɛɔˌtiwɑˈkɑn/ ), [ 1 ] also written Teotihuacán , is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico , 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Mexico City , containing some of the largest Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas . The name means "where man met the gods."
Tenochtitlan ( Classical Nahuatl : Tenōchtitlan [tenoːtʃˈtitɬan] ) was a Nahua altepetl ( city-state ) located on an island in Lake Texcoco , in the Valley of Mexico .
The Tang Dynasty ( Chinese : 唐朝 ; pinyin : Táng Cháo ; IPA: [tʰɑ̌ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ] ; Middle Chinese : Dâng) (June 18, 618 – June 1, 907) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period . It was founded by the Li (李) family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, becoming the only Chinese empress regnant to rule in her own right.
The Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE) [ 1 ] was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties , it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty . Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui , the Sui Dynasty capital was at Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing). His reign saw the reunification of Southern and Northern China and the construction of the Grand Canal .
The Song Dynasty ( Chinese : 宋朝 ; pinyin : Sòng Cháo ; Wade-Giles : Sung Ch'ao; IPA: [sʊ̂ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯] ) was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period , and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty . It was the first government in world history to nationally issue banknotes or true paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy . This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder , as well as first discernment of true north using a compass . The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song. During the Northern Song ( Chinese : 北宋 , 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng ) and the dynasty controlled most of inner China . The Southern Song ( Chinese : 南宋 , 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty .
Sima Qian (ca. 145 or 135 BC – 86 BC) ( Wade-Giles spelling: Szu-ma Ch'ien ) was a Chinese historian of the Han dynasty . He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his work, the Records of the Grand Historian , a jizhuanti -style (紀傳體) general history of China , covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to his time, during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han . Although he worked as the Court Astrologer ( Chinese : 太史令; Tàishǐ Lìng ), later generations refer to him as the Grand Historian ( Chinese : 太史公; taishigong or tai-shih-kung) for his monumental work. [ edit ] Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng in a family of astrologers. His father, Sima Tan , served as the Court Astrologer, a versatile technical position trained in various matters. [ 1 ] His main responsibilities were managing the imperial library and maintaining or reforming the calendar.
Shang Yang ( Chinese : 商鞅 ; pinyin : Shāng Yāng ; Wade–Giles : Shang Yang, 390–338 BC) was an important statesman of the State of Qin during the Warring States Period of Chinese history. Born Wei Yang ( simplified Chinese : 卫鞅 ; traditional Chinese : 衛鞅 ) in the State of Wey , with the support of Duke Xiao of Qin Yang enacted numerous reforms in Qin. These were in accordance with his legalist philosophy as recorded in The Book of Lord Shang and assisted Qin in its change from a peripheral state to that of a militarily powerful and strongly centralized kingdom. He changed the administration of the state through an emphasis on meritocracy and devolvement of power from the nobility . [ edit ] Reforms
The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese : 商 朝 ; pinyin : Shāng cháo ) or Yin Dynasty (Chinese: 殷 代 ; pinyin: Yīn dài ), according to traditional historiography , ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia Dynasty and followed by the Zhou Dynasty . The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Classic of History , Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian . According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin , the Shang ruled between 1766 BC and 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the Bamboo Annals , they ruled between 1556 BC and 1046 BC.
Uxmal, Nunnery Quadrangle Throne 1 of Piedras Negras