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Aviation Climate Change Concerns

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Evaluating the Impacts of Aviation on Climate Change 2007. Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool. Future Aircraft Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) Related Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Projects. PARTNER: Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction. Continuous Lower Emissions, Energy, and Noise (CLEEN) Program.

The Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and Noise (CLEEN) program is a NextGen effort to accelerate development and commercial deployment of environmentally promising aircraft technologies and sustainable alternative fuels.

Continuous Lower Emissions, Energy, and Noise (CLEEN) Program

The aircraft technologies focus on reduction in aircraft noise, emissions, and fuel burn. Under this program, FAA has awarded five-year agreements to Boeing, General Electric, Honeywell, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce. These companies will match or exceed the awards in this cost-sharing program. The total federal investment is expected to be $125 million over five years. Specifically, CLEEN goals include developing and demonstrating: A complementary piece of the CLEEN Program to the technology and fuel development activities is an independent technology assessment. To learn more about the CLEEN program, please visit the links below: CAAFI - Home. Calendar. INCITE Researchers Explore How Aircraft Contrails Can Impact Climate.

When aircraft in the United States were grounded for three days after the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, scientists had a singular opportunity to study the effects of contrails—ice clouds generated by water exhaust gases from aircraft engines—on climate.

INCITE Researchers Explore How Aircraft Contrails Can Impact Climate

The scientists measured day and night temperatures to find out if contrails contributed to regional warming and/or global climate change. Some studies indicated that the absence of contrails during this grounding period increased the daily temperature range at the Earth’s surface, but this result is still a subject of scientific debate. Nonetheless, there’s no question that the environmental impact of aviation represents a source of increasing concern among scientists and policymakers as the demand for air travel continues to grow.

Aviation is one of the fastest growing sectors, with a projected twofold increase by 2020. Jet Biofuel Enlisted For Contrail Control. Contrails might be a punch line in the culture these days, thanks to the imaginative folks who have rechristened them “chemtrails” and embroidered them with elaborate theories involving government and corporate misdeed.

Jet Biofuel Enlisted For Contrail Control

But contrails are pretty serious business for a less conspiratorial reason: scientists believe these ice clouds generated by water exhaust gases from aircraft engines could have a real impact on the climate, perhaps by cooling temperatures during the day and warming them at night. That’s where a new phase in an ongoing NASA study comes into play: The space agency recently began doing flights over the Southern California desert in which a DC-8 “flying laboratory” is testing the contrail consequences of using standard JP-8 jet fuel versus a 50-50 blend of JP-8 and a biofuel made from camelina plants. So what’s the problem with that? As CERFACS explains: Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels. Commercial aviation faces fuel cost, environmental, and energy security challenges that arise from petroleum based jet fuel use.

Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels

Sustainable alternative jet fuels can help to address these challenges. Their use could reduce emissions that impact surface air quality and global climate while expanding domestic energy sources that diversify fuel supplies, contribute to price and supply stability, and generate economic development in rural communities. The FAA is working to enable the U.S. use of one billion gallons per year of "drop-in" sustainable alternative jet fuels by 2018. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project.

Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project explores and documents the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of vehicle concepts and enabling technologies to reduce aviation’s impact on the environment.

Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project

Current-generation aircraft already benefit from the NASA investments in aeronautical research that have improved fuel efficiencies, lowered noise levels and reduced harmful emissions. Although substantial progress has been made, much more needs to be done. Forecasts call for the nation's air transportation system to expand significantly within the next two decades. Such an expansion could bring adverse environmental impacts. To neutralize or reduce these impacts is the goal of the ERA Project and its focused research. The project is organized to:

Climate optimized routing of flights - Colloquium on Aviation and Climate Chante - 6_Schumann_Wmo.pdf. Air Tansportation Systems - CATS – Climate Compatible Air Transport System. Model for Assessing Global Exposure to the Noise of Transport Aircraft (MAGENTA) MAGENTA is a computer model used to estimate the number of people exposed to significant aircraft noise worldwide.

Model for Assessing Global Exposure to the Noise of Transport Aircraft (MAGENTA)

The original MAGENTA model development was done with the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) under the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to assess the worldwide aviation noise climate. The computational core of MAGENTA is FAA’s Integrated Noise Model (INM), the most widely used computer program to calculate aircraft noise around airports. Major assumptions on local traffic use come from getting INM datasets developed for an airport. The noise studies obtained from U.S. airports have gone through thorough public review; either under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements or as part of a land use compatibility program. A U.S. version of the global MAGENTA model was developed to determine the noise exposure in the U.S. using data on aircraft and operations specific to U.S. airports.

System for Assessing Aviation's Global Emissions (SAGE) incorporated into the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) SAGE was a high fidelity computer model used to predict aircraft fuel burn and emissions for all commercial (civil) flights globally.

System for Assessing Aviation's Global Emissions (SAGE) incorporated into the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT)

The model was used to analyze scenarios from a single flight to airport, country, regional, and global levels. In addition, SAGE dynamically modeled aircraft performance, fuel burn and emissions. Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) The Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) was developed in the mid-1980s as a complex source microcomputer model designed to assess the air quality impacts of proposed airport development projects.

Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS)

What is EDMS Designed to Do? The Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) is designed to assess the air quality impacts of airport emission sources, particularly aviation sources, which consist of: Aircraft Auxiliary power units Ground support equipment Ground access vehicles Stationary sources EDMS is one of the few air quality assessment tools specifically engineered for the aviation community. It includes: FAA Required Model In 1998, FAA revised its policy on air quality modeling procedures to identify EDMS as the Required Model (PDF) to perform air quality analyses for aviation sources instead of the preferred model. EDMS 5.1.4.1 (August 2013) Best Practice Document for Using EDMS with USEPA MOVES The FAA has produced a best practice document for using EDMS with the U.S. Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) Environmental Design Space (EDS) EDS is a numerical simulation based on physics that is capable of estimating source noise, exhaust emissions, and performance for potential future aircraft designs under different technological, operational, policy, and market scenarios.

Environmental Design Space (EDS)

While the primary focus of EDS is future aircraft designs (which includes technology modifications to existing aircraft), EDS is capable of analyzing existing aircraft designs (current technology levels), including the simulation of existing aircraft with higher fidelity than is possible using existing noise and emissions tools and inventories. EDS is linked to the Aviation Environmental Tools Suite by providing future aircraft design characteristics to AEDT and AMPT. Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Implementation And Usage. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

CALIPSO - Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations. NASA LaRC Satellite Imagery and Cloud Products. Formation flying civilian airliners? Air Tansportation Systems - Formationsflug ziviler Verkehrsflugzeuge. Der Formationsflug von zivilen Verkehrsflugzeugen verspricht analog zum natürlichen Vorbild der Zugvögel signifikante Treibstoffeinsparungen und dadurch eine Reduktion der Betriebskosten und des CO2-Ausstoßes.

Formation flying civilian airliners? Air Tansportation Systems - Formationsflug ziviler Verkehrsflugzeuge

Die Integration dieses Verfahrens in das Lufttransportsystem stellt jedoch sowohl technisch als auch operationell eine große Herausforderung dar. Centre for Air Transport and the Environment - Climate Change. Omega addressed main question relating to climate and aviation. Non-CO2 impacts were the main focus with studies looking at contrail formation and modelling the resultant impacts.

Omega linked aero-technology modelling and climate effects modelling to understand the relationship of emissions and feeding knowledge into work for operational and market solutions. Global temperature change implications of aviation growth (link to the project) Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) Workshop on the Impacts of Aviation on Climate Change: A Report of Findings and Recommendations June 7-9, 2006, Cambridge, MA.

Ice-Supersaturated Regions. Atmospheric science: Seeing through contrails : Nature Climate Change. Aviation is at present responsible for about 3% of all fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, but an estimated 2–14% of anthropogenic climate forcing1. Furthermore, its contribution to climate forcing could triple by 2050, according to some scenarios1. As such, mitigating the impact of aviation on climate has become a subject of considerable public and political interest. The debate is complicated, however, by the fact that aviation's climate impact results from a number of different factors, as well as by the large uncertainty in the effect that some of these factors have on climate. Black Carbon and Warming: It’s Worse than We Thought by Carl Zimmer: Yale Environment 360.

17 Jan 2013: Analysis by carl zimmer. Black carbon is a larger cause of climate change than previously assessed. From the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme via Eurekalert, some of the heat gets taken off CO2 as the ‘big kahuna’ of forcings, now there is another major player, one that we can easily do something about. I’ve often speculated that black carbon is a major forcing for Arctic sea ice, due to examples like this one. – Anthony Reducing diesel engine emissions would reduce warming This shows black carbon processes in the climate system. Credit: American Geophysical Union 2013. The Double-Sided Sensitivity of Clouds to Air Pollution & Intentional Seeding.

Energy Efficient Contrail Mitigation Strategies for Reducing the Environmental Impact of Aviation 2013. Evaluating the Importance of Aviation on Climate Change 2008.