Assemble a brain. It is a puzzlement: How do you assemble and wire an information processing device as complex as the mammalian brain? There are roughly 86 billion neurons in a human brain, forming about a quadrillion synapses. A rat’s brain is just one thousandth that size, but still pretty complex, with 56 million neurons and 500 billion synapses. How does the brain know to put a nest basket cell here, a small basket cell over there, a large basket cell in the middle, a Martinotti cell on the left and a bi-tufted cell on the right, all wired up to pyramidal cells?
There has to be a plan, doesn’t there? I mean, the body doesn’t just throw its inventory of brain cells out there like a bunch of pick-up sticks, to fall where they may. As it turns out, that may be almost exactly what the brain does. It’s a case of, “Ready. Other studies have already established that random distribution could produce the proper number of potential neuron-neuron connections.
Images: EPFL / Blue Brain Project. Minded computer. Scientists believe they have found a way to read people's minds in what could be the first step towards helping brain-damaged patients who cannot speak. US researchers used a computer programme to decode brain activity and put it into words using a form of electronic telepathy. Experts described the breakthrough, unveiled in the journal Public Library of Science Biology, as "remarkable" and believe it could ultimately be possible to decipher people's thoughts.
Researchers at the University of California in Berkeley used the programme to predict what spoken words volunteers had listened to by analysing their brain activity. Previous research has shown imagined words activate similar brain areas as words that are said aloud, raising hopes they can also be uncovered by "reading" brain waves. Professor Robert Knight, who worked on the study, said: "This is huge for patients who have damage to their speech mechanisms because of a stroke or Lou Gehrig's disease and can't speak. Carreau de_peau. Touch sensitivity on gadgets and robots is nothing new. A few strategically placed sensors under a flexible, synthetic skin and you have pressure sensitivity. Add a capacitive, transparent screen to a device and you have touch sensitivity.
However, Stanford University’s new “super skin” is something special: a thin, highly flexible, super-stretchable, nearly transparent skin that can respond to touch and pressure, even when it’s being wrung out like a sponge. The brainchild of Stanford University Associate Professor of chemical engineering Zhenan Bao, this “super skin” employs a transparent film of spray-on, single-walled carbon nanotubes that sit in a thin film of flexible silicon, which is then sandwiched between more silicon. SEE ALSO: Humanoid Robot Charges Up, Takes a Load Off [VIDEOS] This unique makeup allows the malleable skin to measure force response even as it’s being stretched, or “squeezed like a sponge.” Sphère toucher. Science Published on June 20th, 2012 | by James Ayre With the right sensors, actuators and software, robots can now be given a tactile sense that imitates that of the sense of touch in humans.
A specially designed robot is able to outperform humans in the identification of a wide range of materials based on their textures, according to new research from the University of Southern California’s Viterbi School of Engineering. This will lead to advancements in prostheses, personal assistive robots, and consumer product testing. Equipped with a new type of tactile sensor, the robot is built to mimic the function of a human fingertip. It also employs a newly designed algorithm that helps to make decisions, using strategies similar to the ones humans use, about the exploration of the outside environment. Similar to a human finger, the BioTac® sensor is covered in a soft and flexible skin, over a liquid filling. The research has just been published in the journal Frontiers In Neurorobotics. Saisie sphère.
Robotics is the branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion.
Etymology History of robotics Robotic aspects Components Power source Neurocell language. Imagine if we could understand the language two neurons use to communicate. We might learn something about how thoughts and consciousness are formed. At the very least, our improved understanding of neuron communication would help biologists study the brain with more precision than ever before. Heather Clark, an associate professor of pharmaceutical sciences at Northeastern University, has received a $300,000 Young Faculty Award from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to explore neural cell communication using her expertise in nanosensors. "We were interested in looking into neural cells because of the need to measure chemicals in the brain," she explained.
In separate work, Clark had already been developing nanosensors to measure the biochemical environment inside a single neuron. The other DARPA project, she noted, enabled the team to incorporate enzymes into their sensor format. Sized brain longevity. By Ian Sample, The GuardianThursday, May 2, 2013 3:26 EDT US team identifies mechanism deep in brains of mice which can be tweaked to shorten or lengthen lives Scientists have found a biological command centre for the ageing process in a lump of brain the size of a nut.
The US team identified the mechanism in the hypothalamus, which sits deep inside the brain, and showed they could tweak it to shorten or lengthen the lives of animals. In a series of experiments, the researchers found they could extend the lives of mice by a fifth, without the animals suffering from muscle weakness, bone loss, or memory problems common in old age. The work raises the tantalising prospect of drugs that slow down natural ageing to prolong life in humans, but more crucially to prevent age-related diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s. “We’re very excited about this. . © Guardian News and Media 2013 [women power via Shutterstock.com.] Hacked brain. By Peter V. Milo August 25, 2012 1:56 AM News Get Breaking News First Receive News, Politics, and Entertainment Headlines Each Morning.
Sign Up BERKELEY, Calif. (CBS Seattle) – It sounds like something out of the movie “Johnny Mnemonic,” but scientists have successfully been able to “hack” a brain with a device that’s easily available on the open market. Researchers from the University of California and University of Oxford in Geneva figured out a way to pluck sensitive information from a person’s head, such as PIN numbers and bank information.
The scientists took an off-the-shelf Emotiv brain-computer interface, a device that costs around $299, which allows users to interact with their computers by thought. The scientists then sat their subjects in front of a computer screen and showed them images of banks, people, and PIN numbers. The P300 signal is typically given off when a person recognizes something meaningful, such as someone or something they interact with on a regular basis. Brain trouble. By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News Editor Reviewed by John M.
Grohol, Psy.D. on October 8, 2012 UK researchers report the discovery of a neural mechanism that protects individuals from stress and trauma turning into post-traumatic stress disorder. Investigators from the University of Exeter Medical School began with the knowledge of the brain’s “plasticity,” its unique capability to adapt to changing environments. Studying mice, they found that stressful events reprogram certain receptors in the amygdala, the brain’s emotional nexus. The receptors (called protease-activated receptor 1 or PAR1) act in the same way as a command center, telling neurons whether they should stop or accelerate their activity. Normally, PAR1s tell amygdala neurons to remain active and produce vivid emotions.
This adaptation helps us to keep our fear under control, and not to develop exaggerated responses to mild or irrelevant fear triggers. The study has been published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry. Brain in world-2D. Brain work. Carreau social. Social brain. By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News Editor Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on October 8, 2012 New research from the Brain and Creativity Institute at USC suggests liking or disliking a person can affect how your brain processes actions. Researchers say that most of the time, watching someone else move causes a “mirroring” effect – that is, the parts of our brains responsible for motor skills are activated by watching someone else in action. However, in the new study, researchers discovered that whether or not you like the person you’re watching can actually have an effect on brain activity related to motor actions. This brain action can lead to “differential processing” – for example, thinking the person you dislike is moving more slowly than they actually are.
The study is published in the journal PLOS ONE. “We address the basic question of whether social factors influence our perception of simple actions,” said Lisa Aziz-Zadeh, Ph.D. Source: USC Abstract of a blue brain photo by shutterstock. Gestion learning. After 24 hours of staring at their screens, the teams that participated in our Disrupt NY 2013 Hackathon have now finished their projects and are currently presenting them onstage. With more than 160 hacks, there are far too many cool ones to write about, but one that stood out to me was NewsRel, an iPad-based news app that uses machine-learning techniques to understand how news stories relate to one other.
The app uses Google Maps as its main interface and automatically decides which location is most appropriate for any given story. The app currently uses Reuters‘ RSS feed and analyzes the stories, looking for clusters of related stories and then puts them on the map. Say you are looking at a story about the Boston Marathon bombings. In addition to this, the team built an algorithm that picks the most important sentences from each story to summarize it for you.
The team members have a background in machine learning and iOS engineering. Maths models. The folding of an Origami crane Origami (折り紙? , from ori meaning "folding", and kami meaning "paper" (kami changes to gami due to rendaku) is the traditional Japanese art of paper folding, which started in the 17th century AD at the latest and was popularized outside of Japan in the mid-1900s. It has since then evolved into a modern art form. The goal of this art is to transform a flat sheet of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques, and as such the use of cuts or glue are not considered to be origami. Paper cutting and gluing is usually considered kirigami. The principles of origami are also being used in stents, packaging and other engineering structures. History There is much speculation about the origin of Origami.
In China, traditional funerals include burning folded paper, most often representations of gold nuggets (yuanbao). The earliest evidence of paperfolding in Europe is a picture of a small paper boat in Tractatus de sphaera mundi from 1490. Living neural. Researchers in Korea have taken a leaf out of the microengineer's book, and used lithographic techniques to build live neural circuits in a petri dish. They hope the technique could be exploited one day to build neural tissue scaffolds, to help regenerate neurons in damaged areas of the body, including the spinal cord.
The development is not strictly materials science, but fascinating nonetheless — especially in a world where there is an increasing interplay between biology and technology, with proteins being used as the building blocks for circuits, and graphene proving itself adept at protein detection. The researchers printed a variety of single-cell-sized shapes — including triangles, circles, hexagons, squares and stars — onto a culture substrate using microcontact printing, a form of soft lithography, with a mixture of poly-L-lysine and laminin A chain synthetic peptide.
Then they sprayed this surface with rat neurons that had been tagged with fluorescent dyes. Electronic tattoos. We might one day be able to monitor our bodies' internal functions — and prevent things like epileptic seizures before they happen — using a flexible circuit attached to the surface of skin. The National Science Foundation announced Monday that researchers are working on a prototype tattoo-like device that can detect heart, muscle and brain activity. Tiny curly wires in a flexible membrane make up these devices and work better than conventional hard, brittle circuits, because body tissue itself is soft and pliable. "We're trying to bridge that gap, from silicon, wafer-based electronics to biological, 'tissue-like' electronics, to really blur the distinction between electronics and the body," said materials scientist John Rogers from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.
"As the skin moves and deforms, the circuit can follow those deformations in a completely noninvasive way. " SEE ALSO: Artificial Super-Skin Could Transform Phones, Robots and Artificial Limbs [via CNET] Flick-light méthode. 5/suivi précis. Brain computer. What's the Latest Development? Russian entrepreneur Dmitry Itskov is courting the world's richest individuals to help him in conquering death. Itskov, a 33 year-old, can afford to wait but the billionaires he approaches have an average age of 66, meaning they may be looking for shorter-term solutions to living longer—much longer. "Itskov expects the first fruits in about a dozen years, when a human brain is to be transplanted into a robot body. The resulting 'avatar,' as he calls it, will 'save people whose body is completely worn out or irreversibly damaged.'" Called the 2045 Initiative, it recently held a meeting in Moscow and opened office space in San Francisco.
What's the Big Idea? Preserving the brain and placing it in a host container, so that the spark of consciousness could outlive the body's organ failure, may be "just a way station to Nirvana, which would ultimately involve downloading the brain’s contents into a computer. " Photo credit: Shutterstock.com. Cerveau artificiel. Artificial bodyparts. Wearable robot. Cognition artifice. Cyber ami. Insects drones. 网页收藏夹. Chinese.