Parerga and Paralipomena (Schopenhauer) Parerga and Paralipomena (Greek for "Appendices and Omissions"; German: Parerga und Paralipomena) is a collection of philosophical reflections by Arthur Schopenhauer published in 1851. The selection was compiled not as a summation of or introduction to Schopenhauer's philosophy, but as augmentary readings for those who had already embraced it, although the author maintained it would be comprehensible and of interest to the uninitiated nevertheless. The collection is divided into two volumes, covering first the parerga and thereafter the paralipomena to that philosophy.
The parerga are six extended essays intended as supplementary to the author's thought. The paralipomena, short ruminations divided by topic into thirty-one subheadings, cover material hitherto unaddressed by the philosopher but deemed by him to be complementary to the parerga. Contents Volume One (parerga) Volume Two (paralipomena) Short ruminations divided by topic into thirty-one subheadings. Notes Mythe de Pandore. Pandora (mythe d'Eve) According to the myth, Pandora opened a jar (pithos), in modern accounts sometimes mistranslated as "Pandora's box" (see below), releasing all the evils of humanity—although the particular evils, aside from plagues and diseases, are not specified in detail by Hesiod—leaving only Hope inside once she had closed it again. The Pandora myth is a kind of theodicy, addressing the question of why there is evil in the world.
Hesiod Hesiod, both in his Theogony (briefly, without naming Pandora outright, line 570) and in Works and Days, gives the earliest version of the Pandora story. Theogony The Pandora myth first appears in lines 560–612 of Hesiod's poem in epic meter, the Theogony (ca. 8th–7th centuries BC), without ever giving the woman a name. After humans received the stolen gift of fire from Prometheus, an angry Zeus decides to give humanity a punishing gift to compensate for the boon they had been given.
Works and Days Homer Later embellishments Notes Pandora' box. Vanity (Pandora) Komos ritualistic_drunken (Dyonisos) The Kōmos (Ancient Greek: κῶμος; pl. kōmoi) was a ritualistic drunken procession performed by revelers in ancient Greece, whose participants were known as komasts (κωμασταί, kōmastaí). Its precise nature has been difficult to reconstruct from the diverse literary sources and evidence derived from vase painting. The komos must be distinguished from the pompe, or ritual procession, and the chorus, both of which were scripted. The komos lacked a chorus leader, script, or rehearsal. In the performance of Greek victory odes (epinikia) at post-Game celebrations for winning athletes, the choral singers often present themselves as komasts, or extend an invitation to join the komos, as if the formal song were a preliminary to spontaneous revelry. Nevertheless some komoi were expressly described as "semnoí" ("modest", "decent"), which implies that standard komoi were anything but.
See also Corpus vasorum antiquorum Notes References Kenneth S. Shield of Heracles. An early 5th-century BCE depiction of Heracles (left) fighting Cycnus (Attic black-figure amphora, found at Nola) The Shield of Heracles (Ancient Greek: Ἀσπὶς Ἡρακλέους, Aspis Hērakleous) is an archaic Greek epic poem that was attributed to Hesiod during antiquity. The subject of the poem is the expedition of Heracles and Iolaus against Cycnus, the son of Ares, who challenged Heracles to combat as Heracles was passing through Thessaly.
To serve as an introduction, fifty-six lines have been taken from the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women. The late 3rd- and early 2nd-century BCE critic Aristophanes of Byzantium, who considered the Catalogue to be the work of Hesiod, noted the borrowing, which led him to suspect that the Shield was spurious. The poem takes its cue from the extended description of the shield of Achilles in Iliad xviii, from which it borrows directly, with a single word altered: The Iliad gives enough detail for its hearers to marvel at Hephaestus' workmanship. References Iconoclasme (en allemand) Iconoclasme. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Statues dans la cathédrale Saint Martin à Utrecht, attaquées durant l'iconoclasme de la Réforme au XVIe siècle.
Dans un second sens, le terme iconoclaste (adjectif ou nom) désigne une attitude ou un comportement d'hostilité manifeste aux traditions. Origine[modifier | modifier le code] L'iconoclasme existe depuis l'antiquité. Dans l'Égypte pharaonique, il n'était pas rare de voir les statues des pharaons divinisés détruites par leurs successeurs (ex. : destruction de statues de Hatchepsout par son successeur Thoutmôsis III). La question théologique de la représentation du divin traverse les trois monothéismes. Dans le judaïsme comme dans le christianisme qui en découle, l’interdiction de représenter une figure divine vient formellement du second commandement de Dieu qui est le suivant dans la Bible : — Exode 20:4-6  « Petits enfants, gardez-vous des idoles. » — 1 Jean 5:21  Judaïsme[modifier | modifier le code] Exode, 20, 3 paracha Yitro :
Robotique en jeu_vidéo (japanimation) The series was first aired in North America on San Francisco–area PBS member station KTEH (now KQEH) in 2000. The first two episodes first saw nationwide broadcast in dubbed format on Cartoon Network as part of Toonami's Giant Robot Week on February 24–25, 2003; both episodes were heavily edited for content. Later, the entire series aired nearly unedited on Adult Swim from October 20, 2005, to April 21, 2006. In 2004, A.D. Vision, the English language licenser, released the director's cut versions of episodes 21 through 24 on its Platinum Edition DVDs.
The director's cuts included several new and reworked scenes to better explain the events that occurred in The End of Evangelion. Airing history After several episodes were produced, the first episode aired on October 4, 1995, long after originally planned. I didn't mind it. Episodes Complementary ending Reception See also Notes Jump up ^ "The rise of apocalypticism: What on earth is the world coming to? ". Self-regulating (ghost machine) 1. The holon 1.1 The organism in its structural aspect is not an aggregation of elementary parts, and in its functional aspects not a chain of elementary units of behaviour. 1.2 The organism is to be regarded as a multi-levelled hierarchy of semi-autonomous sub-wholes, branching into sub-wholes of a lower order, and so on.
Sub-wholes on any level of the hierarchy are referred to as holons. 1.3 Parts and wholes in an absolute sense do not exist in the domains of life. The concept of the holon is intended to reconcile the atomistic and holistic approaches. 1.4 Biological holons are self-regulating open systems which display both the autonomous properties of wholes and the dependent properties of parts. 1.5 More generally, the term "holon" may be applied to any stable biological or social sub-whole which displays rule-governed behaviour and/or structural Gestalt-constancy. 2. 3. 3.1 Functional holons are governed by fixed sets of rules and display more or less flexible strategies. 4. 5. 6. 6. Holon (Koestler) A holon (Greek: ὅλον, holon neuter form of ὅλος, holos "whole") is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part.
The word was coined by Arthur Koestler in his book The Ghost in the Machine (1967, p. 48). Koestler was compelled by two observations in proposing the notion of the holon. The first observation was influenced by Nobel Prize winner Herbert A. Simon's parable of the two watchmakers, wherein Simon concludes that complex systems will evolve from simple systems much more rapidly if there are stable intermediate forms present in that evolutionary process than if they are not present. The second observation was made by Koestler himself in his analysis of hierarchies and stable intermediate forms in both living organisms and social organizations. He concluded that, although it is easy to identify sub-wholes or parts, wholes and parts in an absolute sense do not exist anywhere. A hierarchy of holons is called a holarchy.
Jump up ^ Simon, Herbert A. (1969).