L. Susan Brown. L. Susan Brown (born 1959) is a Canadian anarcho-communist writer and theoretician. Brown is best known for her book The Politics of Individualism (1993) and for her article "Does Work Really Work? ". In The Politics of Individualism, she makes a distinction between "existential individualism" and "instrumental individualism" and examines how these forms are utilized in liberalism (particularly liberal feminism) and anarchism. She argues for a new vision of human freedom which incorporates the insights of feminism and liberalism into a form of anarchism based on what she calls "existential individualism". In both The Politics of Individualism and "Does Work Really Work? " Brown has published many articles on the political philosophy of anarchism and feminism, and has had her work translated into Dutch, French, German and Finnish.
Brown works and lives in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and holds a PhD from the University of Toronto. Bibliography References External links Individualist anarchism. Overview Individualist anarchism of different kinds have a few things in common. These are: 1. The concentration on the individual and his/her will in preference to any construction such as morality, ideology, social custom, religion, metaphysics, ideas or the will of others. 2. 3. For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, American individualist anarchism "stresses the isolation of the individual — his right to his own tools, his mind, his body, and to the products of his labor. In European individualist anarchism a different social context helped the rise of European individualist illegalism and as such "The illegalists were proletarians who had nothing to sell but their labour power, and nothing to discard but their dignity; if they disdained waged-work, it was because of its compulsive nature.
Another important tendency within individualist anarchist currents emphasizes individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions. Voltairine de Cleyre. Life Born in the small town of Leslie, Michigan, she later moved with her family to St. Johns, Michigan, where she lived with her unhappily married parents in extreme poverty. Her father named her after the famed French Enlightenment author Voltaire. At age 12, she was placed into a Catholic convent in Sarnia, Ontario, by her father, because he thought it would give her a better education. This experience had the effect of moving her towards atheism rather than Christianity. Of her time spent there she said, "it had been like the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and there are white scars on my soul, where ignorance and superstition burnt me with their hell fire in those stifling days". She attempted to run away by swimming to Port Huron, Michigan, and hiking 17 miles (27 km); but she met friends of her family who contacted her father and sent her back. A flier advertising a memorial event held a few days after De Cleyre's death.
Political beliefs Legacy Emma Goldman. Emma Goldman (June 27 [O.S. June 15], 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. In 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to "induce persons not to register" for the newly instated draft. After their release from prison, they were arrested—along with hundreds of others—and deported to Russia. Initially supportive of that country's October Revolution which brought the Bolsheviks to power, Goldman reversed her opinion in the wake of the Kronstadt rebellion and denounced the Soviet Union for its violent repression of independent voices.
Biography Family Taube's second marriage was arranged by her family and, as Goldman puts it, "mismated from the first". Her second husband, Abraham Goldman, invested Taube's inheritance in a business that quickly failed. Adolescence Most and Berkman. Henry David Thoreau. Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
A leading transcendentalist, Thoreau is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Resistance to Civil Government (also known as Civil Disobedience), an argument for disobedience to an unjust state. Thoreau's books, articles, essays, journals, and poetry total over 20 volumes. Among his lasting contributions are his writings on natural history and philosophy, where he anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, two sources of modern-day environmentalism. Name pronunciation and physical appearance In appearance he was homely, with a nose that he called "my most prominent feature Life Early life and education, 1817–1836 Return to Concord, 1836–1842 Later years, 1851–1862
Élisée Reclus. Élisée Reclus (French: [ʁəkly]; 15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905), also known as Jacques Élisée Reclus, was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist. He produced his 19-volume masterwork La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes ("Universal Geography"), over a period of nearly 20 years (1875–1894). In 1892 he was awarded the prestigious Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society for this work, despite his having been banished from France because of his political activism. Biography Reclus was born at Sainte-Foy-la-Grande (Gironde). He was the second son of a Protestant pastor and his wife. Reclus began his education in Rhenish Prussia, and continued higher studies at the Protestant college of Montauban. Withdrawing from France because of political events of December 1851, he spent the next six years (1852–1857) traveling and working in Great Britain, the United States, Central America, and Colombia.
According to Kirkpatrick Sale: Élisée Reclus Legacy Stephen Pearl Andrews. Stephen Pearl Andrews Stephen Pearl Andrews (March 22, 1812 – May 21, 1886) was an American individualist anarchist, linguist, political philosopher, outspoken abolitionist, and author of several books on the labor movement and Individualist anarchism. Early life and work Andrews was born in Templeton, Massachusetts on March 22, 1812, "the youngest of eight children of the Reverend Elisha Andrews and his wife, Ann Lathrop. While in England, Andrews became interested in Pitman's new shorthand writing system and upon his return to the U.S. he taught and wrote about the shorthand writing system, and devised a popular system of phonographic reporting. By the end of the 1840s, he began to focus his energies on utopian communities.
Wage theory Like most of the nineteenth century individualist anarchists, and unlike the anarcho-communists, he supported the right of employment and wage labor. The 'Wages System' is essentially proper and right. Bibliography Notes Green anarchism. Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within anarchism which puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues.
A green anarchist theory is normally one that extends anarchist ideology beyond a critique of human interactions, and includes a critique of the interactions between humans and non-humans as well. This often culminates in an anarchist revolutionary praxis that is not merely dedicated to human liberation, but also to some form of ecological liberation, and that aims to bring about an environmentally sustainable anarchist society. Early ecoanarchism Henry David Thoreau Anarchism started to have an ecological view mainly in the writings of American anarchist and transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau. As such "Many have seen in Thoreau one of the precursors of ecologism and anarcho-primitivism represented today in John Zerzan. Élisée Reclus Main article: Élisée Reclus Élisée Reclus, French anarchist geographer and early environmentalist.
Anarcha-feminism. A purple and black flag is often used to represent Anarcha-feminism. Contrary to popular belief and contemporary association with militant, or Radical Feminism, Anarcha-feminism is not an inherently militant party. It is described to be an anti-authoritarianism, anti-capitalism, anti-oppressive philosophy, with the goal to create an "equal ground" between males and females. The term "Anarcha-feminism" suggests the social freedom and liberty of women, without needed dependence upon other groups or parties. Origins Mikhail Bakunin opposed patriarchy and the way the law "subjects [women] to the absolute domination of the man. " He argued that "[e]qual rights must belong to men and women" so that women can "become independent and be free to forge their own way of life.
" Bakunin foresaw the end of "the authoritarian juridical family" and "the full sexual freedom of women Virginia Bolten and La Voz de la Mujer Anarcha-feminism, individualist anarchism and the free love movement William Batchelder Greene. William B. Greene William Batchelder Greene (April 4, 1819 – May 30, 1878) was a 19th-century individualist anarchist, Unitarian minister, soldier and promotor of free banking in the United States.
Biography Greene returned in 1861 to serve in the American Civil War. Although a Democrat, he was a strong abolitionist, and at the beginning of the Civil War became colonel of the 14th Massachusetts Infantry, afterward the 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. In 1862, while stationed with his regiment in Fairfax, Virginia, he was recalled and assigned by Gen. According to James J. The existing organization of credit is the daughter of hard money, begotten upon it incestuously by that insufficiency of circulating medium which results from laws making specie the sole legal tender.The immediate consequences of confused credit are want of confidence, loss of time, commercial frauds, fruitless and repeated applications for payment, complicated with irregular and ruinous expanses. See also Anarcho-naturism. Anarcho-naturism (also anarchist naturism and naturist anarchism) appeared in the late 19th century as the union of anarchist and naturist philosophies. Mainly it had importance within individualist anarchist circles in Spain, France, Portugal. and Cuba. Anarcho-naturism advocates vegetarianism, free love, nudism, hiking and an ecological world view within anarchist groups and outside them. Anarcho-naturism also promotes an ecological worldview, small ecovillages, and most prominently nudism as a way to avoid the artificiality of the industrial mass society of modernity. Naturist individualist anarchists see the individual in their biological, physical and psychological aspects and tried to eliminate social determinations. History Early influences An important early influence on anarchist naturism was the thought of Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy and Elisee Reclus. France Richard D.
Spain The Case Against Hierarchy. The Ego and Its Own. The Ego and Its Own (German: Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum; also translated as Me and My Own) is a philosophical work by German philosopher Max Stirner (1806–1856). This work was first published in 1845, although with a stated publication date of "1844" to confuse the Prussian censors. The Ego and Its Own is a radically individualist critique of modern European civilization and its ideologies, especially Hegelianism and religious thinking.
It sets out to promote a unique form of dialectical egoism[disambiguation needed] which is founded on individual autonomy or "Ownness" (Eigenheit). Stirner's book played a role in the decline of left Hegelianism, influenced Karl Marx in his turn towards dialectical materialism and was also an important source for individualist anarchism. Content Part one Throughout the book, Stirner applies this dialectial structure to human history (the Ancient and Modern worlds, and the Egoistic Future). Part two Do I write out of love to men? Tolstoyan movement. Vladimir Chertkov with Leo Tolstoy The Tolstoyan movement is a social movement based on the philosophical and religious views of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910).
Tolstoy's views were formed by rigorous study of the ministry of Jesus, particularly the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy expressed "great joy" that groups of people "have been springing up, not only in Russia but in various parts of Europe, who are in complete agreement with our views. " However, the author also thought it was a mistake to create a specific movement or doctrine after him, urging individuals to listen to their own conscience rather than blindly follow his.
To speak of "Tolstoyism," to seek guidance, to inquire about my solution of questions, is a great and gross error. Beliefs and practices Tolstoy organising famine relief in Samara, 1891. Tolstoyans (Russian:Толстовцы, Tolstovtsy) identify themselves as Christians, but do not generally belong to an institutional Church. Groups and colonies Biennio Rosso. A sociological study of violence in Italy (1919-1922) by text mining. Arrow width proportional to number of violent acts between social groups.
(Click on large animated GIF image to see evolution) The Biennio Rosso (English: "Red Biennium") was a two-year period, between 1919 and 1920, of intense social conflict in Italy, following the First World War. The revolutionary period was followed by the violent reaction of the Fascist blackshirts militia and eventually by the March on Rome of Benito Mussolini in 1922. The Biennio Rosso took place in a context of economic crisis at the end of the war, with high unemployment and political instability. It was characterized by mass strikes, worker manifestations as well as self-management experiments through land and factories occupations. In Turin and Milan, workers councils were formed and many factory occupations took place under the leadership of anarcho-syndicalists.
See also References Bibliography Defining an Anarchist-Sociology: A Long Anticipated Marriage | Jeff Shantz. Cost the limit of price. In keeping with the tradition of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, the "cost" of labor is considered to be the subjective cost; i.e., the amount of suffering involved in it. Development The principle was set forth in Warren's Equitable Commerce (among other writings) and has been called a "mainstay of 19th century individualist anarchism. " It was further advocated and popularized by Benjamin Tucker in his individualist anarchist periodical Liberty, and in his books. See also References Josiah Warren. Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. Cincinnati Time Store.
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