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Avril 2014

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Organization theory (Castells) The theory of the Information Age is deeply rooted in organization theory. This may come as a surprise since Manuel Castells is perhaps more readily associated with either the study of the Internet, cities and regions, or social movements. There are two points to be made about the parallels with organization theory. First, Castells sees himself as picking up Max Weber’s mantle in both his use of historical sociology and in his style of theory. Second, the informational economy is not the direct result of the rise of new ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies). Rather, it is the convergence of those technologies with an older and autonomous process of network forms of organizing with their focus on flexibility and adaptability as key modes of organizing.

Network researchers (see social networks) do not seem to have adopted Castells’ framework. 1. 2. 3. 4. Category:Organizational studies. Category:Organizational theory. Knowledge transfer. In organizational theory, knowledge transfer is the practical problem of transferring knowledge from one part of the organization to another. Like knowledge management, knowledge transfer seeks to organize, create, capture or distribute knowledge and ensure its availability for future users. It is considered to be more than just a communication problem. If it were merely that, then a memorandum, an e-mail or a meeting would accomplish the knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer is more complex because (1) knowledge resides in organizational members, tools, tasks, and their subnetworks[1] and (2) much knowledge in organizations is tacit or hard to articulate.[2] The subject has been taken up under the title of knowledge management since the 1990s.

Background[edit] Argote & Ingram (2000) define knowledge transfer as "the process through which one unit (e.g., group, department, or division) is affected by the experience of another"[1] (p. 151). Knowledge transfer in landscape ecology[edit] The Stanford NLP (Natural Language Processing) Group. About | Citing | Questions | Download | Included Tools | Extensions | Release history | Sample output | Online | FAQ A natural language parser is a program that works out the grammatical structure of sentences, for instance, which groups of words go together (as "phrases") and which words are the subject or object of a verb.

Probabilistic parsers use knowledge of language gained from hand-parsed sentences to try to produce the most likely analysis of new sentences. These statistical parsers still make some mistakes, but commonly work rather well. Their development was one of the biggest breakthroughs in natural language processing in the 1990s. You can try out our parser online. Package contents This package is a Java implementation of probabilistic natural language parsers, both highly optimized PCFG and lexicalized dependency parsers, and a lexicalized PCFG parser. As well as providing an English parser, the parser can be and has been adapted to work with other languages. Usage notes. Parsing. Within computational linguistics the term is used to refer to the formal analysis by a computer of a sentence or other string of words into its constituents, resulting in a parse tree showing their syntactic relation to each other, which may also contain semantic and other information.

The term is also used in psycholinguistics when describing language comprehension. In this context, parsing refers to the way that human beings analyze a sentence or phrase (in spoken language or text) "in terms of grammatical constituents, identifying the parts of speech, syntactic relations, etc. " [2] This term is especially common when discussing what linguistic cues help speakers to interpret garden-path sentences. Human languages[edit] Traditional methods[edit] Parsing was formerly central to the teaching of grammar throughout the English-speaking world, and widely regarded as basic to the use and understanding of written language.

Computational methods[edit] Psycholinguistics[edit] Parser[edit] Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition. A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management Maria Kozhevnikov, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, 149 Thirteenth St., Charlestown, MA 02129 E-mail: Abstract The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines.

First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Introduction Historically, the term “cognitive style” has referred to consistencies in an individual’s manner of cognitive functioning, particularly in acquiring and processing information (Ausburn & Ausburn, 1978).