My computer boots to a black screen, what options do I have to fix it? Installing a lightweight LXDE+VNC desktop environment on your Ubuntu/Debian VPS - Van Dorp IT. Found some great instructions for putting a lightweight desktop environment on your (Lowend) VPS or server. Uses no more then like 40mb RAM tops, but can be tweaked to only 10-20mb I think. # Make sure Debian is the latest and greatest apt-get update apt-get upgrade apt-get dist-upgrade # Install X, LXDE, VPN programs apt-get install xorg lxde-core tightvncserver # Start VNC to create config file tightvncserver :1 # Then stop VNC tightvncserver -kill :1 # Edit config file to start session with LXDE: nano ~/.vnc/xstartup # Add this at the bottom of the file: lxterminal & /usr/bin/lxsession -s LXDE & # Restart VNC tightvncserver :1 You then connect using the VNC viewer of your choice on your local computer. I use the "VNC Free Edition Viewer for Windows Stand-Alone Viewer" at: Configure the viewer to access your VPS at: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:5901.
Original credits go to LongShot @ LET.com. How to detect new NIC/Ethernet card without rebooting in Linux ~ GoLinuxHub. I have a Red Hat 6 vm created in my VMware Workstation Lab. I will just go ahead and add a new NIC card to my running RHEL machine. # ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:B9:4D:D3 inet addr:192.168.1.11 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:feb9:4dd3/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:91992 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:58283 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:99437002 (94.8 MiB) TX bytes:5498693 (5.2 MiB) lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:2964 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:2964 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:388592 (379.4 KiB) TX bytes:388592 (379.4 KiB) So as of now the new thernet card configuration is not reflected.
How to configure Pam-radius in Ubuntu — WiKID. Each flavor of linux handles PAM slightly differently. This tutorial covers how to install pam-radius for two-factor authentication on Ubuntu. First, install the package: $ sudo apt-get install libpam-radius-auth That was pretty painless. Now let's configure it.
First, let's tell pam_radius which radius server to talk to: $ sudo vim /etc/pam_radius_auth.conf Note that the file says to copy it to /etc/raddb/server, but DO NOT do that. Edit the line "other-server other-secret 3" replacing 'other-server' with IP address or hostname of your WiKID Strong Authentication server (or radius server if you have one set up in between WiKID and your servers) and change 'other-secret' the shared secret for this network client.
Now that the package is setup and pointing to your WiKID server, let's configure a service to use it. Edit your /etc/pam.d/sshd file and add the line: auth sufficient pam_radius_auth.so Just above: # Standard Un*x authentication. Now, you are ready to test. Ch14 : Linux Firewalls Using iptables. Network security is a primary consideration in any decision to host a website as the threats are becoming more widespread and persistent every day. One means of providing additional protection is to invest in a firewall.
Though prices are always falling, in some cases you may be able to create a comparable unit using the Linux iptables package on an existing server for little or no additional expenditure. This chapter shows how to convert a Linux server into: A firewall while simultaneously being your home website's mail, web and DNS server. A router that will use NAT and port forwarding to both protect your home network and have another web server on your home network while sharing the public IP address of your firewall. Creating an iptables firewall script requires many steps, but with the aid of the sample tutorials, you should be able to complete a configuration relatively quickly.
Before you begin, you need to make sure that the iptables software RPM is installed. In this example: How to authenticate Apache 2 with Radius on Debian « Admins eHow. How To Configure Apache To Use Radius For Two-Factor Authentication On Ubuntu. This document describes how to add WiKID two-factor authentication to Apache 2.x using mod_auth_radius on Ubuntu 8.1. A previous article described how to add two factor authentication to apache on Fedora. Interestingly, a patch has been created to update mod_auth_radius to work with Apache 2.2+, however, it has only been updated for Debian and Ubuntu.
For Fedora and other RedHat flavors of Linux, it is recommended that you use mod_auth_xradius. It is also recommended that you consider using mutual https authentication for web applications that are worthy of two-factor authentication. Strong mutual authentication means that the targeted website is authenticated to the user in some cryptographically secure manner, thwarting most man-in-the-middle attacks. The use of cryptography is key. While some sites use an image in an attempt to validate a server, it should be noted that any man-in-the-middle could simply replay such an image. Our configuration was as follows: Now, in httpd.conf, enter: How To Configure Apache To Use Radius For Two-Factor Authentication On Ubuntu.
OpenVPN server with username / password authentication. Share on Pinterest In this tutorial I’m going to show you how to configure OpenVPN server using username / password authentication on the client. The configuration will be pretty straight forward and will be a great starting point for more complex openvpn configurations. First I will show you how to configure the server and then the client, in my example I’m using Ubuntu 12.04 but you should be able to do this on any linux distribution. Server Configuration Let’s instal openvpn: sudo apt-get install openvpn OpenVPN is in the default repositories so that’s easy enough. Sudo mkdir /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/ OpenVPN uses the /etc/openvpn folder and this is where we create a new folder called “easy-rsa”. Sudo cp -r /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/easy-rsa/2.0/* /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/ Now we need to edit the “vars” file which holds some information about the certificate: sudo vim /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/vars You can leave everything default except for the following fields: sudo su . . . .
Client Configuration. Ubuntu / Debian Linux: Install and Setup TFTPD Server. How do I install and configure TFTP server under Debian or Ubuntu Linux server to configure networking equipment such as remote booting of diskless devices or remote loading of Unix like operating systems via PXE boot? Tftpd is a server for the Trivial File Transfer Protocol. The TFTP protocol is extensively used to support remote booting of diskless devices or loading operating systems. Debian or Ubuntu can use any one of the following tftpd server:atftpd - Advanced TFTP server.tftpd - Trivial file transfer protocol server.tftpd-hpa - HPA's tftp server.dnsmasq - Lightweight DNS, TFTP and DHCP server.
In this tutorial, I am going to install and configure tftpd-hpa. Warning: TFTP server / protocol provides little security. Make sure a TFTP server is placed behind a firewall system. tftpd-hpa TFTP server installation Fig.01: Installing and Setting TFTPD Server In Ubuntu / Debian System Sample outputs: Reading package lists... Configuration How do I start / stop / restart tftpd-hpa server? WebDAV - From WebDAV is a method for allowing remote access to local folders via an HTTP-based web browser. In other words, an HTTP-based file server is created (using the Apache2 server platform in these examples, since the Apache2 webserver has a built-in WebDAV module).
This can be combined with user authentication (using LDAP or a number of other password mechanisms). WebDAV Server Installation Install Apache webserver Apache2 must be installed, either alone or as part of a LAMP server. sudo apt-get install apache2 or sudo apt-get install tasksel sudo tasksel install lamp-server Open your firewall Remember, WebDAV is an HTTP server. Enable the Apache2 WebDAV modules Enable the dav and dav_fs modules: sudo a2enmod dav_fs Restart Apache2: sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart Create a folder for WebDAV use There are two options: Create a WebDAV directory in the /var/www folder: sudo mkdir /var/www/WebDAV1 Create a WebDAV directory in the /home/user/ (also known as ~/) folder and create a symbolic link: sudo dolphin.
How To Install and Secure phpMyAdmin on Debian 7. PhpMyAdmin phpMyAdmin is a free web software to work with MySQL on the web. It provides a convenient visual front end to the MySQL capabilities. Setup Before working with phpMyAdmin, you need to have LAMP installed on your server. If you don't have the Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP stack on your server, you can find the tutorial for setting it up here. Once you have the user and required software, you can start installing phpMyAdmin on your VPS! Install phpMyAdmin The easiest way to install phpmyadmin is through apt-get: sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin During the installation, phpMyAdmin will walk you through a basic configuration. Select Apache2 for the server Choose YES when asked about whether to Configure the database for phpmyadmin with dbconfig-commonEnter your MySQL password when promptedEnter the password that you want to use to log into phpmyadmin After the installation has completed, add phpmyadmin to the apache configuration. sudo nano /etc/apache2/apache2.conf Restart apache: Security.
Conjuntos web. Using FreeRADIUS with Cisco Devices | Layer Zero Blog. Even though I am the only administrator for the devices in my lab and home network, I thought it would be nice to have some form of centralized authentication, authorization and accounting for these devices. However, I quickly realized that using a dedicated appliance such as Cisco ACS or ISE would mean adding another always-on VM to my lab environment. I wasn’t quite ready to start wasting my lab resources on a basic function like AAA. So instead of using a dedicated appliance, I decide to implement FreeRADIUS on the Ubuntu Linux server that I use for DNS, DHCP, syslog, and other network services in my lab. Although, TACACS+ is usually the protocol of choice for Cisco AAA, my requirements are simple enough that RADIUS will work just as well. And since FreeRADIUS is included in the standard Ubuntu repositories this should be very easy to install.
My requirements are pretty straightforward. Rather than messing with my regular server I deploy a fresh Ubuntu VM for testing purposes. Using NTP to sync time on Debian. Keeping your Debian system's date and time accurate is easy to do using NTP. Synchronize watches Having an accurate clock on your VPS is usually a good thing. It ensures the time stamps in emails sent from the machine are correct, and it's especially helpful when you need to look at the logs from a particular time of day.
If you are running a kernel from our repository that is older than 188.8.131.52 you shouldn't need to do anything to keep your server at an accurate time. Newer kernels, on the other hand, use a scheme that actually prevents the VPS from talking to the hardware clock (the "pvops" kernels, for the curious and technical-minded). Network time protocol That's where the network time protocol (NTP) comes in. Setting up an NTP server to regularly adjust your machine's clock is pretty easy by default.
Install The first thing to do is install the NTP server. Sudo aptitude update sudo aptitude install ntp Start the service To make sure the NTP service starts after installing it, run: How To Install and Secure phpMyAdmin on Debian 7. How to create a software RAID-1 array with mdadm on Linux. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) is a storage technology that combines multiple hard disks into a single logical unit to provide fault-tolerance and/or improve disk I/O performance. Depending on how data is stored in an array of disks (e.g., with striping, mirroring, parity, or any combination thereof), different RAID levels are defined (e.g., RAID-0, RAID-1, RAID-5, etc).
RAID can be implemented either in software or with a hardware RAID card. On modern Linux, basic software RAID functionality is available by default. In this post, we'll discuss the software setup of a RAID-1 array (also known as a "mirroring" array), where identical data is written to the two devices that form the array. Since the actual storage capacity (size) of a RAID-1 array is the size of the smallest drive, normally (if not always) you will find two identical physical drives in RAID-1 setup. Installing mdadm on Linux Fedora, CentOS or RHEL # systemctl start mdmonitor # systemctl enable mdmonitor Where:
How to configure software RAID1 during installation process. Recently I needed to setup software RAID1 during Debian installation process. As it turned out, this process was simpler then I initially expected. I will shortly describe it here using screen-shots captured during initial tests. As an example I will configure RAID1 for the root file-system and swap space using two storage devices, without any additional spare devices. Step 1 Perform normal installation process up to the disk partitioning menu. Step 2 Select manual partitioning method in the disk partitioning menu. Step 3 Create empty partition table on each disk used to create RAID1 array. Step 4 Create partitions on the first disk. During partition creation process select physical volume for RAID as partition type. Replicate changes in the same way to the second disk. Step 5 Execute configure software RAID option.
You will be asked to store changes applied to the partition tables - do it so partitions created in the previous step can be used to create RAID arrays. Choose RAID1 as device type. Step 6. How to configure software RAID1 during installation process. Ch09. The rest of this section is about using the PAM module provided in the Samba distribution to enable Windows domain users to authenticate on the Linux system hosting Samba. Depending on which services you choose to configure, this allows Windows domain users to log in on a local console (or through telnet), log in to a GUI desktop on the Linux system, authenticate with an FTP server running on the Linux system, or use other services normally limited to users who have an account on the Linux system. The PAM module authenticates Windows domain users by querying winbind, which passes the authentication off to a Windows NT domain controller.
As an example, we will show how to allow Windows domain users to log in to a text console on the Linux system and get a command shell and home directory. The method used in our example can be applied (with variations) to other services. All users who can log in to the Linux system need a shell and a home directory. . # cp -pR /etc/pam.d /etc/pam.d.backup. RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10 Explained with Diagrams. By Ramesh Natarajan on August 10, 2010 RAID stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive (Independent) Disks. On most situations you will be using one of the following four levels of RAIDs. RAID 0RAID 1RAID 5RAID 10 (also known as RAID 1+0) This article explains the main difference between these raid levels along with an easy to understand diagram. In all the diagrams mentioned below: A, B, C, D, E and F – represents blocksp1, p2, and p3 – represents parity Following are the key points to remember for RAID level 0.
Minimum 2 disks.Excellent performance ( as blocks are striped ).No redundancy ( no mirror, no parity ).Don’t use this for any critical system. Following are the key points to remember for RAID level 1. Minimum 2 disks.Good performance ( no striping. no parity ).Excellent redundancy ( as blocks are mirrored ). Following are the key points to remember for RAID level 5. Following are the key points to remember for RAID level 10. Additional RAID Tutorials: Client Certificate Authentication With Apache (An Example)
Debian / Ubuntu - Create a root certification authority (Root CA) - Page 2 on 2 - InformatiWeb. Ch09.