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PHYSICS

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Matter. Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.

Matter

This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects.[1][2] All the objects from everyday life that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are composed of atoms. This atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles—usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons.[3][4] Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. Definition Common definition Quarks.

RADIATION

PARTICLE PHYSICS. Dimensionless quantity. In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity or quantity of dimension one is a quantity without an associated physical dimension.

Dimensionless quantity

Dimensional transmutation. In particle physics, dimensional transmutation is a physical mechanism providing a linkage between a dimensionless parameter and a dimensionful parameter.

Dimensional transmutation

In classical field theory, such as gauge theory in four-dimensional spacetime, the coupling constant is a dimensionless constant. However, upon quantization, logarithmic divergences in one-loop diagrams of perturbation theory imply that this "constant" actually depends on the typical energy scale of the processes under considerations, called the renormalization group (RG) scale. This "running" of the coupling is specified by the beta-function of the renormalization group. Scientists create never-before-seen form of matter. Harvard and MIT scientists are challenging the conventional wisdom about light, and they didn't need to go to a galaxy far, far away to do it.

Scientists create never-before-seen form of matter

Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. The discovery, Lukin said, runs contrary to decades of accepted wisdom about the nature of light. Photons have long been described as massless particles which don't interact with each other – shine two laser beams at each other, he said, and they simply pass through one another.

"Photonic molecules," however, behave less like traditional lasers and more like something you might find in science fiction – the light saber. The reason they form the never-before-seen molecules? International System of Units. For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of the metric system.

International System of Units

The standards, published in 1960 as the result of an initiative started in 1948, are based on the metre–kilogram–second (MKS) system, rather than the centimetre–gram–second (CGS) system, which, in turn, had several variants. The SI has been declared to be an evolving system; thus prefixes and units are created and unit definitions are modified through international agreement as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. The system has been adopted by most countries in the developed (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) world, though within English-speaking countries, the adoption has not been universal.

In the United States metric units are not commonly used outside of science, medicine and the government; however, United States customary units are officially defined in terms of SI units. History[edit] Uncoordinated development[edit] Thomson Maxwell. Copenhagen interpretation. The Copenhagen interpretation is one of the earliest and most commonly taught interpretations of quantum mechanics.[1] It holds that quantum mechanics does not yield a description of an objective reality but deals only with probabilities of observing, or measuring, various aspects of energy quanta, entities that fit neither the classical idea of particles nor the classical idea of waves.

Copenhagen interpretation

The act of measurement causes the set of probabilities to immediately and randomly assume only one of the possible values. This feature of mathematics is known as wavefunction collapse. The essential concepts of the interpretation were devised by Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg and others in the years 1924–27. According to John Cramer, "Despite an extensive literature which refers to, discusses, and criticizes the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, nowhere does there seem to be any concise statement which defines the full Copenhagen interpretation. Background[edit] Origin of the term[edit] 1. . Interpretations of quantum mechanics. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is a set of statements which attempt to explain how quantum mechanics informs our understanding of nature.

Interpretations of quantum mechanics

Although quantum mechanics has held up to rigorous and thorough experimental testing, many of these experiments are open to different interpretations. There exist a number of contending schools of thought, differing over whether quantum mechanics can be understood to be deterministic, which elements of quantum mechanics can be considered "real", and other matters. Quantum Cheshire Cat: Even Weirder Than Schrödinger’s.