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XQuery and XPath Data Model. The XQuery and XPath Data Model (XDM) is the data model shared by the XPath 2.0, XSLT 2.0 and XQuery programming languages.

XQuery and XPath Data Model

XQuery. XQuery is a query and functional programming language that is designed to query and transform collections of structured and unstructured data, usually in the form of XML, text and with vendor-specific extensions for other data formats (JSON, binary, etc.). The language is developed by the XML Query working group of the W3C. The work is closely coordinated with the development of XSLT by the XSL Working Group; the two groups share responsibility for XPath, which is a subset of XQuery. XQuery 1.0 became a W3C Recommendation on January 23, 2007.[3] XQuery 3.0 became a W3C Recommendation on April 8, 2014.[4] "The mission of the XML Query project is to provide flexible query facilities to extract data from real and virtual documents on the World Wide Web, therefore finally providing the needed interaction between the Web world and the database world.

XML. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format which is both human-readable and machine-readable.


It is defined by the W3C's XML 1.0 Specification[2] and by several other related specifications,[3] all of which are free open standards.[4] The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality and usability across the Internet.[5] It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for different human languages. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures[6] such as those used in web services. World Wide Web Consortium. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).

World Wide Web Consortium

Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee,[3] the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web. As of 7 September 2013[update], the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has 383 members.[2] W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web. History[edit] The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October, 1994. W3C tries to enforce compatibility and agreement among industry members in the adoption of new standards defined by the W3C.

It was originally intended that CERN host the European branch of W3C; however, CERN wished to focus on particle physics, not information technology. Web Services Interoperability. It is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of the founding members (IBM, Microsoft, BEA Systems, SAP, Oracle, Fujitsu, Hewlett-Packard, and Intel) and two elected members (currently, Sun Microsystems and webMethods).

Web Services Interoperability

Since joining OASIS, other organizations have joined the WS-I technical committee including CA Technologies, JumpSoft and Booz Allen Hamilton. The organization's deliverables include profiles, sample applications that demonstrate the profiles' use, and test tools to help determine profile conformance. WS-I Profiles[edit] According to WS-I, a profile is A set of named web services specifications at specific revision levels, together with a set of implementation and interoperability guidelines recommending how the specifications may be used to develop interoperable web services.

Web service. A Web service is a method of communications between two electronic devices over a network.

Web service

It is a software function provided at a network address over the web with the service always on as in the concept of utility computing. Service-oriented architecture. See also the client-server model, a progenitor concept.

Service-oriented architecture

Service-level agreement. A service-level agreement (SLA) is a part of a service contract[disambiguation needed] where a service is formally defined.

Service-level agreement

In practice, the term SLA is sometimes used to refer to the contracted delivery time (of the service or performance). As an example, Internet service providers and telcos will commonly include service level agreements within the terms of their contracts with customers to define the level(s) of service being sold in plain language terms. In this case the SLA will typically have a technical definition in terms of mean time between failures (MTBF), mean time to repair or mean time to recovery (MTTR); various data rates; throughput; jitter; or similar measurable details. Situation awareness. Situation awareness (SA) involves being aware of what is happening in the vicinity, in order to understand how information, events, and one's own actions will impact goals and objectives, both immediately and in the near future.

Situation awareness

One with an adept sense of situation awareness generally has a high degree of knowledge with respect to inputs and outputs of a system, i.e. an innate "feel" for situations, people, and events that play out due to variables the subject can control. Lacking or inadequate situation awareness has been identified as one of the primary factors in accidents attributed to human error.[1] Thus, situation awareness is especially important in work domains where the information flow can be quite high and poor decisions may lead to serious consequences (e.g., piloting an airplane, functioning as a soldier, or treating critically ill or injured patients). Definition[edit] Security information management. Security information management (SIM) is an industry term in related to information security referring to the collection of data (typically log files) into a central repository for trend analysis.[1] SIM products generally comprise of software agents running on the computer systems that are to be monitored, which then send the log information to a centralized server acting as a "security console".

Security information management

The console typically displays reports, charts, and graphs of that information, often in real time. Some software agents can incorporate local filters, to reduce and manipulate the data that they send to the server, although typically from a forensic point of view you would collect all audit and accounting logs to ensure you can recreate a security incident. The security console is monitored by a human being, who reviews the consolidated information, and takes action in response to any alerts issued.[2][3] Notable solutions in the SIM/SEM marketplace[5][6][7][edit] Security information and event management. Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) is a term for software and products services combining security information management (SIM) and security event manager (SEM).

Security information and event management

SIEM technology provides real-time analysis of security alerts generated by network hardware and applications. SIEM is sold as software, appliances or managed services, and are also used to log security data and generate reports for compliance purposes.[1] The acronyms SEM, SIM and SIEM have been sometimes used interchangeably. [when?] Service assurance. Service assurance, in telecommunications, is the application of policies and processes by a Communications Service Provider (CSP) to ensure that services offered over networks meet a pre-defined service quality level for an optimal subscriber experience. The practice of service assurance enables CSPs to identify faults in the network and resolve these issues in a timely manner so as to minimize service downtime. The practice also includes policies and processes to proactively pinpoint, diagnose and resolve service quality degradations or device malfunctions before subscribers are impacted.

Service assurance encompasses the following: Fault and event managementPerformance managementProbe monitoringQuality of service (QoS) managementNetwork and service testingNetwork traffic managementCustomer experience managementService level agreement (SLA) monitoringTrouble ticket management Service assurance spending by CSPs is forecast to grow to $USD 3.0 billion by 2011. Security event manager. A security event manager (SEM) (acronyms SIEM and SIM) is a computerized tool used on enterprise data networks to centralize the storage and interpretation of logs, or events, generated by other software running on the network.[1][2][3] SEMs are a relatively new idea, pioneered in 1999 by a small company called E-Security, and in 2010 are still evolving rapidly.

Often confused with security information managers (SIMs) and security information and event managers (SIEMs). The key feature of a Security Event Management tool is the ability to analyse the collected logs to highlight events or behaviors of interest, for example an Administrator or Super User logon,[4] outside of normal business hours. Many systems and applications which run on a computer network generate events which are kept in event logs.

XQuery. Operations support system. Operations support systems (also called operational support systems or OSS) are computer systems used by telecommunications service providers. The term OSS most frequently describes "network systems" dealing with the telecom network itself, supporting processes such as maintaining network inventory, provisioning services, configuring network components, and managing faults. The complementary term, business support systems or BSS, is a newer term and typically refers to “business systems” dealing with customers, supporting processes such as taking orders, processing bills, and collecting payments. The two systems together are often abbreviated OSS/BSS, BSS/OSS or simply B/OSS. Java Management Extensions. JMX 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 were defined by JSR 003[1] of the Java Community Process.

As of 2006[update], JMX 2.0 is being developed under JSR 255.[2] The JMX Remote API 1.0 for remote management and monitoring is specified by JSR 160.[3] An extension of the JMX Remote API for Web Services is being developed under JSR 262.[4] Adopted early on by the J2EE community, JMX has been a part of J2SE since version 5.0. It is a trademark of Oracle Corporation. Architecture[edit]

Java Message Service. General idea of messaging[edit] Messaging is a form of loosely coupled distributed communication, where in this context the term 'communication' can be understood as an exchange of messages between software components. Message-oriented technologies attempt to relax tightly coupled communication (such as TCP network sockets, CORBA or RMI) by the introduction of an intermediary component.

This approach allows software components to communicate 'indirectly' with each other. Benefits of this include message senders not needing to have precise knowledge of their receivers. The advantages of messaging include the ability to integrate heterogeneous platforms, reduce system bottlenecks, increase scalability, and respond more quickly to change.[4] Java Database Connectivity. Java (programming language) Duke, the Java mascot Sun Microsystems released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1995.[1] It promised "Write Once, Run Anywhere" (WORA), providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms.

Extract, transform, load. Event stream processing. Event stream processing, or ESP, is a set of technologies designed to assist the construction of event-driven information systems. ESP technologies include event visualization, event databases, event-driven middleware, and event processing languages, or complex event processing (CEP). In practice, the terms ESP and CEP are often used interchangeably. Common operational picture. A commander's headquarters is typically responsible for ensuring that the appropriate information is presented to the commander, so that he can make the best command decisions.

Cloud computing. Cloud computing metaphor: For a user, the network elements representing the provider-rendered services are invisible, as if obscured by a cloud. Cloud computing is a computing term or metaphor that evolved in the late 1990s, based on utility and consumption of computer resources. Cloud computing involves application systems which are executed within the cloud and operated through internet enabled devices. Purely cloud computing does not rely on the use of cloud storage as it will be removed upon users download action. Complex event processing. Activity stream. Though activity stream arises from social networking, nowadays it has become an essential part[5] of business software.

Enterprise social software is used in different types of companies to organize their internal communication and acts as an important addition to traditional corporate intranet. Such major collaboration software like Jive Software, Yammer, eXo Platform or Chatter offer activity stream as a separate product. Security information and event management. Business activity monitoring.

Business support system. Business process management. Operational Intelligence Glossary.