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Object-oriented ontology. Object-oriented ontology is often viewed as a subset of speculative realism, a contemporary school of thought that criticizes the post-Kantian reduction of philosophical enquiry to a correlation between thought and being, such that the reality of anything outside of this correlation is unknowable.[5] Object-oriented ontology predates speculative realism, however, and makes distinct claims about the nature and equality of object relations to which not all speculative realists agree.

Object-oriented ontology

The term “object-oriented philosophy” was officially coined by Graham Harman, the movement's founder, in his 1999 doctoral dissertation "Tool-Being: Elements in a Theory of Objects. "[6] Since then, a number of theorists working in a variety of disciplines have adapted Harman's ideas, including philosophy professor Levi Bryant, literature and ecology scholar Timothy Morton, video game designer Ian Bogost, and medievalists Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and Eileen Joy.


GEO-PHILOSOPHY. MEREOLOGY. Process philosophy. Process philosophy (or ontology of becoming) identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.

Process philosophy

Since the time of Plato and Aristotle, philosophers have posited true reality as "timeless", based on permanent substances, while processes are denied or subordinated to timeless substances. If Socrates changes, becoming sick, Socrates is still the same (the substance of Socrates being the same), and change (his sickness) only glides over his substance: change is accidental, whereas the substance is essential. Therefore, classic ontology denies any full reality to change, which is conceived as only accidental and not essential. Formal ontology. By maintaining an independent view on reality a formal (upper level) ontology gains the following properties: indefinite expandability: the ontology remains consistent with increasing content.content and context independence: any kind of 'concept' can find its place.accommodate different levels of granularity.

Formal ontology

Theories on how to conceptualize reality date back as far as Plato and Aristotle. Existing formal upper level ontologies (foundational ontologies)[edit] Common terms in formal (upper-level) ontologies[edit] The differences in terminology used between separate formal upper-level ontologies can be quite substantial, but most formal upper-level ontologies apply one foremost dichotomy: that between endurants and perdurants. Nontology.

NON-PHILOSPHY Francois Laruelle

ONTOLOGY. PARMENIDES. ZENO OF ELEA. DEMOCRITUS. Atomism. Atomism (from ancient Greek atomos , meaning "uncuttable") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.


The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void . Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory , philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] References to the concept of atomism and its atoms are found in ancient India and ancient Greece . The particles of chemical matter which chemists and other natural philosophers of the early 19th century found experimental evidence, were thought to be indivisible, and therefore were given the name "atom", long used by the atomist philosphy. [ edit ] Reductionism.

Epicureanism. Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.


Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that what he called "pleasure" is the greatest good, but the way to attain such pleasure is to live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires.

This led one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear, as well as absence of bodily pain (aponia). The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Epicureanism was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main opponent of Stoicism. Some writings by Epicurus have survived.


ARISTOTALES. ANSELM OF CANTERBURY. LEIBNIZ. MARX. FRANZ BRENTANO. EDMUND HUSSERL. Martin Heidegger. BERTRAND RUSSELL. Alfred North Whitehead. In his early career Whitehead wrote primarily on mathematics, logic, and physics.

Alfred North Whitehead

His most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica (1910–13), which he co-wrote with former student Bertrand Russell. Principia Mathematica is considered one of the twentieth century's most important works in mathematical logic, and placed 23rd in a list of the top 100 English-language nonfiction books of the twentieth century by Modern Library.[44] Whitehead's process philosophy argues that "there is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have consequences for the world around us. "[28] For this reason, one of the most promising applications of Whitehead's thought in recent years has been in the area of ecological civilization and environmental ethics pioneered by John B. Life[edit] Whewell's Court north range at Trinity College, Cambridge.

Bertrand Russell in 1907.


POST MODERN. Philosophical ISMs. All pages with prefix. All pages with prefix.