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Integral Theory

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Integraltheory_3-2-2009.pdf. Reductionism. Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homine, 1662.


Reductionism strongly reflects a certain perspective on causality. In a reductionist framework, the phenomena that can be explained completely in terms of relations between other more fundamental phenomena, are called epiphenomena. Often there is an implication that the epiphenomenon exerts no causal agency on the fundamental phenomena that explain it. Reductionism does not preclude the existence of what might be called emergent phenomena, but it does imply the ability to understand those phenomena completely in terms of the processes from which they are composed.

This reductionist understanding is very different from that usually implied by the term 'emergence', which typically intends that what emerges is more than the sum of the processes from which it emerges. Religious reductionism generally attempts to explain religion by boiling it down to certain nonreligious causes. Integral theory.

Integral theory, a philosophy with origins in the work of Sri Aurobindo and Jean Gebser, and promoted by Ken Wilber, seeks a synthesis of the best of pre-modern, modern, and postmodern reality.[1] It is portrayed as a "theory of everything,"[2] and offers an approach "to draw together an already existing number of separate paradigms into an interrelated network of approaches that are mutually enriching.

Integral theory

"[1] It has been applied by scholar-practitioners in 35 distinct academic and professional domains as varied as organizational management and art.[1] Methodologies[edit] Integral psychology. Integral psychology is psychology that presents an all-encompassing holistic rather than an exclusivist or reductive approach.

Integral psychology

Hubert Benoit (psychotherapist) Hubert Benoit (1904–1992) was a 20th-century French psychotherapist whose work foreshadowed subsequent developments in integral psychology and integral spirituality.[1][2] His special interest and contribution lay in developing a pioneering form of psychotherapy which integrated a psychoanalytic perspective with insights derived from Eastern spiritual disciplines, in particular from Ch'an and Zen Buddhism.[3] He stressed the part played by the spiritual ignorance of Western culture in the emergence and persistence of much underlying distress.

Hubert Benoit (psychotherapist)

He used concepts derived from psychoanalysis to explain the defences against this fundamental unease, and emphasised the importance of an analytic, preparatory phase, while warning against what he regarded as the psychoanalytic overemphasis on specific causal precursors of symptomatology.[4] He demonstrated parallels between aspects of Zen training and the experience of psychoanalysis. ' It should be on the bookshelf of every meditator. Sri Aurobindo. Sri Aurobindo (Sri Ôrobindo), (15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950), born Aurobindo Ghosh, was an Indian nationalist, freedom fighter, philosopher, yogi, guru and poet.

Sri Aurobindo

He joined the Indian movement for freedom from British rule, for a while became one of its influential leaders and then turned into a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution.


Boomeritis. Boomeritis: A Novel That Will Set You Free is a polemical 2002 novel by American philosopher Ken Wilber principally designed to explain Wilber's integral theory and to explain his concept of "Boomeritis".


Wilber characterizes this as the deadly combination of a modern liberal, egalitarian worldview with a deep unquestioned narcissism commonly held by Baby Boomers and their children. Summary[edit] Ken attends a series of lectures at an institution called the Integral Center (an obvious stand-in for the real life Integral Institute) which guides him towards a more expansive understanding of evolution and existence.

These lectures are interposed with explicit descriptions of Ken's sexual fantasies with another character, Chloe. The concept of Boomeritis[edit] According to Wilber, "Boomeritis" describes a pathological belief system that afflicts Baby Boomers in particular. See also[edit] External links[edit] Don Edward Beck. Don Edward Beck is a teacher, geopolitical advisor, and theorist focusing on applications of large scale psychology, including social psychology, evolutionary psychology, organizational psychology and their effect on human sociocultural systems.

Don Edward Beck

He is the co-author of the Spiral Dynamics theory, an evolutionary human development model. He spent many years adapting the work of his mentor and colleague, developmental psychologist Clare W. Graves, Professor Emeritus in Psychology at Union College in New York. Spiral Dynamics. In spiral dynamics, the term vmeme refers to a core value system, acting as an organizing principle, which expresses itself through memes (self-propagating ideas, habits, or cultural practices).

Spiral Dynamics

The superscript letter v indicates these are not basic memes but value systems which include them. The colors act as reminders for the life conditions and mind capacities of each system and alternate between cool and warm colors as a part of the model.[2] Within the model, individuals and cultures do not fall clearly in any single category (color). Each person/culture embodies a mixture of the value patterns, with varying degrees of intensity in each. Spiral Dynamics claims not to be a linear or hierarchical model. Integral Institute. The Integral Institute is a think-tank founded in 1998 by American author Ken Wilber.

Integral Institute

Integral Research Center. What is Integral Research?

Integral Research Center

Integral Research (IR) is a dynamic, systematic approach to conducting integrative research across multiple domains and scales. IR enables researchers to explore and address the multi-faceted and multi-dimensional nature of complex phenomena, supporting them to go beyond the fragmented and specialized state of contemporary knowledge production. IR draws on integral metatheory, notably Ken Wilber’s Integral Theory and Roy Bhaskar’s Critical Realism, to generate an approach that explores and discloses the dynamic interrelationships between (inter)subjective and (inter)objective aspects of reality. Through the use of ‘Integral Methodological Pluralism’ (see figure 1), IR allows one to combine, coordinate, and systematically integrate the multiplicity of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) available for scientific inquiry.

Research: Conducting and supporting original methodologically pluralistic research. Why Our Work Matters. Integral Institute. Founders Here are some of the founding members of a few of the major branches of Integral Institute: Integral Psychology Robert Kegan, Francisco Varela, David Chalmers, Roger Walsh, Frances Vaughan, Mike Murphy, T George Harris, Susann Cook-Greuter, Don Beck, Robert Forman, Bert Parlee, Nathaniel Branden, Leland Johnson, Allan Combs, Raz Ingrasci, Brian van der Horst, Edith Zundel, Adam Engle, Frank Visser, Peter McNab, Thomas Jordan, William Torbert, John Rowan, Antony Arcari, Jenny Wade, Kaisa Puhakka, Joel Funk, Mike Mahoney, David Deida, Connie Hilliard, Dick Mann, Michael Zimmerman Integral Medicine Larry Dossey, Ken Pelletier, Fred Luskin, Kekuni Minton, John Astin, Richie Davidson, Jerry Coursen, Tom Goddard, Wanda Jones, Joan Borysenko, Marilyn Schlitz, William Buchholz, Bija Bennett, Gary Schwartz, George Leonard, James Ensign, David Lorimer, Jeanne Achterberg, Linda Russek, Jon Kabat-Zinn History.

Zero-sum game. In game theory and economic theory, a zero-sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which a participant's gain (or loss) of utility is exactly balanced by the losses (or gains) of the utility of the other participant(s). If the total gains of the participants are added up, and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero. Thus cutting a cake, where taking a larger piece reduces the amount of cake available for others, is a zero-sum game if all participants value each unit of cake equally (see marginal utility). In contrast, non–zero sum describes a situation in which the interacting parties' aggregate gains and losses are either less than or more than zero. A zero-sum game is also called a strictly competitive game while non–zero-sum games can be either competitive or non-competitive. Zero-sum games are most often solved with the minimax theorem which is closely related to linear programming duality,[1] or with Nash equilibrium.

Marginal utility. Marginality[edit] The term marginal refers to a small change, starting from some baseline level. As Philip Wicksteed explained the term, "Marginal considerations are considerations which concern a slight increase or diminution of the stock of anything which we possess or are considering"[2] In practice the smallest relevant division may be quite large. Minimax. Minimax (sometimes MinMax or MM[1]) is a decision rule used in decision theory, game theory, statistics and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst case (maximum loss) scenario. Alternatively, it can be thought of as maximizing the minimum gain (maximin or MaxMin). Originally formulated for two-player zero-sum game theory, covering both the cases where players take alternate moves and those where they make simultaneous moves, it has also been extended to more complex games and to general decision making in the presence of uncertainty.

Nash equilibrium. In game theory, the Nash equilibrium is a solution concept of a non-cooperative game involving two or more players, in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only their own strategy.[1] If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing strategies while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices and the corresponding payoffs constitutes a Nash equilibrium. The reality of the Nash equilibrium of a game can be tested using experimental economics method.

Stated simply, Amy and Will are in Nash equilibrium if Amy is making the best decision she can, taking into account Will's decision while Will's decision remains unchanged, and Will is making the best decision he can, taking into account Amy's decision while Amy's decision remains unchanged. Applications[edit] History[edit] The Nash equilibrium was named after John Forbes Nash, Jr. Let . Ervin László. Life[edit] László, son of a shoe manufacturer and a mother who played the piano, started playing the piano when he was five years old, and gave his first piano concert with the Budapest Symphony Orchestra at the age of nine.

At the end of the war he came to the United States.[2] Work[edit] In 1984, he was co-founder with Béla H. Club of Budapest. Béla H. Bánáthy. Béla Heinrich Bánáthy (December 1, 1919 – September 4, 2003) was a Hungarian linguist, systems scientist and a professor at San Jose State University and UC Berkeley. Bánáthy was the founder of the White Stag Leadership Development Program whose leadership model was adopted across the United States. He was also founder of the International Systems Institute[1] with its innovative "conversation"-oriented conference structure, co-founder of the General Evolutionary Research Group,[2] an influential professor of systems theory and a widely read and respected author.


Jean Gebser. Ilya Prigogine. SIMPOL. Entering a dark age of innovation - science-in-society - 02 July 2005. Read full article Continue reading page |1|2.