Ontology. Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality.
Ontology (information science) In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a hierarchy of concepts within a domain, using a shared vocabulary to denote the types, properties and interrelationships of those concepts. Ontologies are the structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, systems engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, enterprise bookmarking, and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework.
The term ontology has its origin in philosophy and has been applied in many different ways. The word element onto- comes from the Greek ὤν, ὄντος, ("being", "that which is"), present participle of the verb εἰμί ("be"). According to Gruber (1993): Common components of ontologies include: Formal ontology (Philosophy) By maintaining an independent view on reality a formal (upper level) ontology gains the following properties: indefinite expandability: the ontology remains consistent with increasing content.content and context independence: any kind of 'concept' can find its place.accommodate different levels of granularity.
Theories on how to conceptualize reality date back as far as Plato and Aristotle. Existing formal upper level ontologies (foundational ontologies) Common terms in formal (upper-level) ontologies The differences in terminology used between separate formal upper-level ontologies can be quite substantial, but most formal upper-level ontologies apply one foremost dichotomy: that between endurants and perdurants. Formal concept analysis. Formal concept analysis finds practical application in fields including data mining, text mining, machine learning, knowledge management, semantic web, software development, chemistry and biology.
Overview and history Pairs of formal concepts may be partially ordered by the subset relation between their sets of objects, or equivalently by the superset relation between their sets of attributes. This ordering results in a graded system of sub- and superconcepts, a concept hierarchy, which can be displayed as a line diagram. The family of these concepts obeys the mathematical axioms defining a lattice, and is called more formally a concept lattice. In French this is called a treillis de Galois (Galois lattice) because of the relation between the sets of concepts and attributes is a Galois connection. Motivation and philosophical background Formal Concept Analysis aims at the clarity of concepts according to Charles S. Conceptual clustering. Conceptual clustering is a machine learning paradigm for unsupervised classification developed mainly during the 1980s.
It is distinguished from ordinary data clustering by generating a concept description for each generated class. Most conceptual clustering methods are capable of generating hierarchical category structures; see Categorization for more information on hierarchy. Conceptual clustering is closely related to formal concept analysis, decision tree learning, and mixture model learning.
Categorization. There are many categorization theories and techniques.
In a broader historical view, however, three general approaches to categorization may be identified: Classical categorizationConceptual clusteringPrototype theory The classical view The classical Aristotelian view claims that categories are discrete entities characterized by a set of properties which are shared by their members. In analytic philosophy, these properties are assumed to establish the conditions which are both necessary and sufficient conditions to capture meaning.
According to the classical view, categories should be clearly defined, mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive.
Event partitioning. System context diagram for a fictitious hotel.
(By convention, bidirectional flows, with arrows at both ends, are often used when a dialogue is initiated externally. For example, “booking dialogue” contains the flow “booking request”, which is the initial trigger; “booking confirmation”, the result, is sent back.) Event partitioning is an easy-to-apply systems analysis technique that helps the analyst organize requirements for large systems into a collection of smaller, simpler, minimally-connected, easier-to-understand ‘mini systems’ / use cases. Overview The Event partitioning approach is explained by Stephen M. Event partitioning topics Actor → Event → Detect → Respond The method has the following steps. 1. The technique was extended with ‘non-event’ events by Paul T.
Data dictionary notation Yourdon/DeMarco style of data dictionary notation may be used to describe the composition and structure of data. NB. System context diagram. Use case. A UMLUse Case Diagram for the interaction of a client (the actor) within a restaurant (the system) In systems engineering, use cases are used at a higher level than within software engineering, often representing missions or stakeholder goals.
The detailed requirements may then be captured in Systems Modeling Language (SysML) or as contractual statements. Use Cases are an important requirement technique that have been widely used in modern software engineering since their formal introduction by Ivar Jacobson in 1992. Use case driven development is a key characteristic of process models and frameworks such as the Unified Process (UP), Rational Unified Process (RUP), and Oracle Unified Method (OUM).
With its iterative and evolutionary nature, the use case is also a good fit for agile development. History In 1986 Ivar Jacobson first formulated textual, structural, and visual modeling techniques for specifying use cases. General Formal Ontology. Webonset.
STANDARD UPPER ONTOLOGY. DUBLIN CORE. Protege Ontologies Library.