Bardarbunga. Index of Weekly Reports 2015: January | February 2014: August | September | October | November | December Weekly Reports 11 February-17 February 2015 During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months.
Seismicity remained strong. Volcanic eruption in Holuhraun - Human health effect - Embætti landlæknis. Pollution from the eruption in Holuhraun Volcanic gases with possible effect human health are released into the atmosphere from the eruption in Holuhrauni.
The most abundant gases are water ( H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Other substances such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen(H2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and helium (He) are also released, but in smaller amounts. The human health effect is mainly caused by SO2, the most common symptoms are irritation in eyes, throat and respiratory tract and people can experience difficulties in breathing in high concentrations of SO2. Persons with asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and heart diseases are more sensitive than healthy people and develop symptoms at lower concentrations compared with others. Bárðarbunga. Bárðarbunga ([ˈpaurðarpuŋka]), Bardarbunga (Anglophone spelling), is a stratovolcano located under Vatnajökull, Iceland's most extensive glacier.
The second highest mountain in Iceland, 2,009 metres (6,591 ft) above sea level, Bárðarbunga is also part of a volcanic system that is approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) long and 25 kilometres (16 mi) wide. Description Bárðarbunga is a subglacial stratovolcano located under the ice cap of Vatnajökull glacier within the Vatnajökull National Park in Iceland. It rises to 2,009 metres (6,591 ft) above sea level, making it the second highest mountain in Iceland, about 101 metres (331 ft) lower than Hvannadalshnjúkur.
The caldera is about 80 square kilometres, up to 10 km wide and about 700 metres (2,300 ft) deep. The surrounding edges rise up to 1,850 metres but the base is on average close to 1,100 metres. Umhverfisstofnun. Litirnir í töflunni miða við styrk SO2 í 10-15 mínútur.
Áhrif loftmengunar á heilsu eru háð þeim tíma sem fólk dvelur í menguninni. Heilsuverndarmörk fyrir klukkutíma eru 350 µg/m3 og heilsuverndarmörk fyrir sólarhring 125 µg/m3. ** Öll börn. Fullorðnir með astma (sögu um ýl og/eða surg fyrir brjósti, eða greindan astma), berkjubólgu, lungnaþembu og hjarta- og æðasjúkdóma. Þessar leiðbeiningar gilda einnig um barnshafandi konur. Fyrirvari - tilraunakeyrsla. Dreifing brennisteinstvíildis næstu þrjá daga.
Styrkurinn eykst að eldstöðinni. Tilraunakeyrsla, sjá fyrirvara. Um gasdreifingarlíkanið Myndin sýnir spá um dreifingu brennisteinstvíildis, SO2, sem kemur frá gosstöðinni á hverri klukkustund. Styrkur SO2 við eldstöðina er metinn á grundvelli fjarkönnunargagna og spáin um dreifingu SO2 byggist á vindaspám.
Text and maps approved by meteorologist on duty. Spá veðurvaktar um gasdreifingu. Forsíða Veðurstofu Íslands. Bardarbunga_kafli20140825.pdf. Douglas C-47 Skytrain. The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota (RAF designation) is a military transport aircraft developed from the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner.
It was used extensively by the Allies during World War II and remains in front line service with various military operators to the present day. Design and development During World War II, the armed forces of many countries used the C-47 and modified DC-3s for the transport of troops, cargo, and wounded. The U.S. Naval designation was R4D. Moment magnitude scale. Historical context The Richter scale; a former measure of earthquake magnitude In 1935, Charles Richter and Beno Gutenberg developed the local magnitude ( ) scale (popularly known as the Richter scale) with the goal of quantifying medium-sized earthquakes (between magnitude 3.0 and 7.0) in Southern California.
This scale was based on the ground motion measured by a particular type of seismometer (a Wood-Anderson seismograph) at a distance of 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the earthquake's epicenter. Because of this, there is an upper limit on the highest measurable magnitude, and all large earthquakes will tend to have a local magnitude of around 7. Further, the magnitude becomes unreliable for measurements taken at a distance of more than about 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the epicenter. The modified Richter scale Although the Richter scale represented a major step forward, it was not as effective for characterizing some classes of quakes.
Þjórsá Lava. Approach The littoral part of the Great Þjórsá Lava can be inspected off the seawalls of Stokkseyri and Eyrarbakki.
During low tide the Atlantic waves break at the submerged lava front far off-shore but closer to the beach small channels in between flat lava skerries, grown with seaweed, indicate the landscape. Effusive eruption. An effusive eruption is a volcanic eruption characterized by the outpouring of lava onto the ground (as opposed to the violent fragmentation of magma by explosive eruptions).
Lava flows generated by effusive eruptions vary in shape, thickness, length, and width depending on the type of lava erupted, discharge, slope of the ground over which the lava travels, and duration of eruption. For example, basalt lava may become ʻaʻā or pāhoehoe. Andesite lava typically forms blocky lava flows, and dacite lava flows often form steep-sided mounds called lava domes due to their viscosity. Time-lapse video of Kilauea flank vent eruption, 2005 Effusive eruptions occur when hot, (1200 °C) low-viscosity magmas reach the surface of the Earth's crust. Dissolved gases escape easily as the magma erupts, forming lava that flows downhill quite quickly and easily. Earthquake swarm. Earthquake swarms are events where a local area experiences sequences of many earthquakes striking in a relatively short period of time.
The length of time used to define the swarm itself varies, but the United States Geological Survey points out that an event may be on the order of days, weeks, or months. They are differentiated from earthquakes succeeded by a series of aftershocks by the observation that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock. Earthquake swarms are one of the events typically preceding eruptions of volcanoes. In the United States there was the so-called "Mogul earthquake sequence" that began in February 2008 near Reno, Nevada and continued for several months, ending in November 2008. Between February and April the swarm produced more than 1,000 quakes of small magnitude, although the largest measured 4.7.
Another example was that affecting a Spanish island in the eastern Atlantic during the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption. Stratovolcano. Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79 and the last eruption of this stratovolcano near Naples, Italy occurred in March 1944. It has been essentially dormant since then. A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity. The Environment Agency of Iceland - Umhverfisstofnun. Volcanic gases with possible effect human health are released into the atmosphere from the eruption in Holuhrauni.
The most abundant gases are water ( H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Other substances such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen(H2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) og helium (He) are also released, but in smaller amounts. The human health effect is mainly caused by SO2, the most common symptoms are irritation in eyes, throat and respiratory tract and people can experience difficulties in breathing in high concentrations of SO2.
Persons with asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and heart diseases are more sensitive compared to healthy people and develop symptoms at lower concentrations compared to others. Umhverfisstofnun. Litirnir í töflunni miða við styrk SO2 í 10-15 mínútur. Áhrif loftmengunar á heilsu eru háð þeim tíma sem fólk dvelur í menguninni. Heilsuverndarmörk fyrir klukkutíma eru 350 µg/m3 og heilsuverndarmörk fyrir sólarhring 125 µg/m3. * Öll börn.