Autopoiesis. 3D representation of a living cell during the process of mitosis, example of an autopoietic system.
The original definition can be found in Autopoiesis and Cognition: the Realization of the Living (1st edition 1973, 2nd 1980): Page 78: - An autopoietic machine is a machine organized (defined as a unity) as a network of processes of production (transformation and destruction) of components which: (i) through their interactions and transformations continuously regenerate and realize the network of processes (relations) that produced them; and (ii) constitute it (the machine) as a concrete unity in space in which they (the components) exist by specifying the topological domain of its realization as such a network.  Page 89:- [...] the space defined by an autopoietic system is self-contained and cannot be described by using dimensions that define another space. Meaning Collective intelligence. Types of collective intelligence Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria and animals. Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. History Self-replicating spacecraft. The idea of self-replicating spacecraft has been applied — in theory — to several distinct "tasks".
The particular variant of this idea applied to the idea of space exploration is known as a von Neumann probe. Other variants include the Berserker and an automated terraforming seeder ship. Theory In theory, a self-replicating spacecraft could be sent to a neighbouring star-system, where it would seek out raw materials (extracted from asteroids, moons, gas giants, etc.) to create replicas of itself. These replicas would then be sent out to other star systems. Given this pattern, and its similarity to the reproduction patterns of bacteria, it has been pointed out that von Neumann machines might be considered a form of life. The first quantitative engineering analysis of such a spacecraft was published in 1980 by Robert Freitas, in which the non-replicating Project Daedalus design was modified to include all subsystems necessary for self-replication.
Self-replicating machine. A simple form of machine self-replication A self-replicating machine is a construct that can autonomously reproduce itself from raw environmental materials, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.
The concept of self-replicating machines has been advanced and examined by Homer Jacobsen, Edward F. Moore, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann and in more recent times by K. Eric Drexler in his book on nanotechnology, Engines of Creation and by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in their review Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines which provided the first comprehensive analysis of the entire replicator design space. The future development of this technology has underlain several plans involving the mining of moons and asteroid belts for ore and other materials, the creation of lunar factories, and even the construction of solar power satellites in space.
Concept History von Neumann's kinematic model Moore's artificial living plants In 1956 mathematician Edward F. 3D-printet løbesko reparerer sig selv. Løbesko er de seneste år blevet mere og mere avancerede - men denne her tager alligevel prisen.
Den London-baserede designer Shamees Aden arbejder nemlig på at udvikle en sko, der kan 3D-printes, så den passer lige så nøjagtigt til en fod som et ekstra lag hud. Materialet, som skoene printes af, kaldes protoceller. Det er basale molekyler, som i sig selv ikke er levende, men kan kombineres til at skabe levende organismer. Shamees Aden får hjælp fra Dr. Martin Hanczyc, der er tilknyttet Syddansk Universitet og ekspert i protocelleteknologi. Ved at blande forskellige typer af disse 'døde' molekyler prøver han at skabe materialer, der kan programmeres til at opføre sig forskelligt. Martin Hanczyc forklarer mere om baggrunden for sin forskning i protoceller i denne TED-talk. Løbesko genoplives henover natten For at skoene fungerer optimalt, skal de placeres i en protocelle-væske, når de ikke er i brug. Væsken kan desuden farves, så protocellerne tager den kulør, man ønsker.