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Ancient China

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Elementary-level Resources. List of rulers of China. The list of rulers of China includes rulers of China with various titles. From the Shang dynasty to the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: 王; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shi Huang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin: huángdì). This title of emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's Imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information. Xia dynasty[edit] Shang dynasty[edit] Ancient China. Central Themes for a Unit on China | Central Themes and Key Points. These recurrent "central themes" may be referred to repeatedly in the study of Chinese history, suggesting distinctive patterns to students, until a portrait of cultural difference is accumulated.

Of many possible themes, six are discussed here as illustrative of Chinese culture and its relation to the world: Theme 1: National Identity and China's Cultural Tradition China is one of the oldest continuous civilizations in history and the dominant cultural center of East Asia; with flourishing philosophical, political, economic, artistic and scientific traditions, China developed a strong cultural identity as a universalistic civilization. China has struggled for the last century with the challenge of forging a new identity in a world of nation-states and of redefining its cultural values in a modern world.

Theme 2: Agriculture and Population: The Agrarian Dilemma in China's Modernization Theme 3: Family and State: The Importance of Hierarchy and Paternalism in the Ordering of Society. Confucius - Philosopher. Confucius was an influential Chinese philosopher, teacher and political figure known for his popular aphorisms and for his models of social interaction. Synopsis Kong Qui, better known as Confucius, was born in 551 B.C. in the Lu state of China (near present-day Qufu). His teachings, preserved in the Analects, focused on creating ethical models of family and public interaction, and setting educational standards. He died in 479 B.C. Confucianism later became the official imperial philosophy of China, and was extremely influential during the Han, Tang and Song dynasties.

Early Life Confucius, also known as Kong Qui or K’ung Fu-tzu, was born probably in 551 B.C. Philosophy and Teachings During the sixth century B.C., competing Chinese states undermined the authority of the Chou Empire, which had held supreme rule for over 500 years. Confucius’ political beliefs were likewise based on the concept of self-discipline. Major Works Advertisement — Continue reading below Death and Legacy Videos. 1000-1450 CE: China's Golden Age: The Song, the Mongols, and the Ming Voyages | Central Themes and Key Points. This period of Chinese history, from roughly 600-1600 C.E., is a period of stunning development in China. From the Tang (discussed in the unit on the Tang Dynasty) through the "pre-modern" commercial and urban development of the Song, ca. 1000, to the Ming voyages of exploration (1405- 1433) with ships that reach the coast of Africa.

(The achievements of China under the Song are the subject of Marco Polo's "fantastic" reports when he journeys to China under the Mongols, who rule in China for eighty-nine years (1279- 1368) as the Yuan dynasty, between the Song and Ming.) China's Preeminence under the Song (960-1279) and Commercial Development The Song dynasty (960-1279) follows the Tang (618-906) and the two together constitute what is often called "China's Golden Age. " The use of paper money, the introduction of tea drinking, and the inventions of gunpowder, the compass, and printing all occur under the Song. Mongols in Asia The Ming Voyages Ming Dynasty China at the Time of Columbus. 1450-1750: China: The Ming and the Qing | Central Themes and Key Points.

1750-1919: China and the West: Imperialism, Opium, and Self-Strengthening (1800-1921) | Central Themes and Key Points. Ancient China for Kids and Teachers Index - Ancient China for Kids. What's in a Name? Chinese Rivers, Cities and Provinces. Mengzi.pdf. ‎ Xunzi. 1. Life and Writings There is little to go on in constructing an account of Xunzi's life. The Xunzi itself includes few hints, and it is hard to reconcile later (Han dynasty) sources with one another. There is accordingly a great deal of scholarly disagreement about how to fill in the details of Xunzi's biography.

What is relatively certain is that Xunzi was born in the northern state of Zhao towards the end of the 4th century B.C.E., that he flourished in the middle of the 3rd century, and that he died at an old age sometime after 238. Surviving sources mention two official posts held by Xunzi. The Xunzi reports audiences with the kings both of Zhao, his home state, and of (pre-imperial) Qin.

Xunzi had at least one influential student in Li Si, who is widely considered the intellectual architect of the Qin unification. Probably the bulk of the Xunzi was composed during Xunzi's lifetime and under his supervision. [Return to table of contents] 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Chinese Mariner Zheng He [Cheng Ho] Zheng He's Tomb Zheng He (1371-1435), or Cheng Ho, is arguably China's most famous navigator.

Starting from the beginning of the 15th Century, he traveled to the West seven times. For 28 years, he traveled more than 50,000km and visited over 30 countries, including Singapore. Zheng He died in the tenth year of the reign of the Ming emperor Xuande (1435) and was buried in the southern outskirts of Bull's Head Hill (Niushou) in Nanjing. In 1985, during the 580th anniversary of Zheng He's voyage, his tomb was restored. At the entrance to the tomb is a Ming-style structure, which houses the memorial hall. Zhenghe constructed many wooden ships, some of which are the largest in the history, in Nanjing.

Chinese Inventions: Can You Name Them? From • Silk • Tea • Porcelain • Paper • Printing • Gunpowder • Compass • Alchemy [Chemistry] • Civil Service • Grain Storage • Other [plant life, political theory] Discussion Questions Related Link: Timeline of Chinese Inventions The Chinese knew how to produce silk at least by 1300 B.C., but not until the second century B.C. did it begin to be exported to Europe, and not until about 550 A.D., when monks who had traveled to China brought back silkworm eggs, did the West learn the Chinese secret of silk-making. The Chinese traded silk with the Roman Empire and then with Byzantium. In return they received such items as wool, glass, and asbestos. . | back to top | Tea drinking originated in China and spread throughout the world. Porcelain, also called "china," is a type of clay pottery that was invented in China by using clay with special minerals.

Paper was first invented in China about 105 A.C. Henry A. Timeline of Chinese History and Dynasties. Chinese History - Common Core. From at least 1766BCE to the twentieth century of the Common Era, China was ruled by dynasties. A dynasty is a family that passes control from one generation to the next. A dynasty does not have to last for a long time. One Chinese dynasty lasted more than 800 years while another lasted only fifteen years. advertisement The ancient Chinese believed their ancestors in heaven had chosen their leaders. There are indications of an earlier Hsia Dynasty, but the Shang were the first dynasty to leave written records. The Shang practiced human sacrifice. The Chou were initially nomads who lived west of the Shang. The Chou developed a feudal system in China. The Chou rulers taxed their subjects, but they used the wealth they collected to build huge walls to defend their cities from nomadic warriors.

Advertisement Chinese nobles gradually gained more power than the Chou rulers in a period of Chinese history that historians call the Age of Warring States. Listen as Mr. China. China is a country in East Asia whose culture is considered the oldest, still extant, in the world. The name `China’ comes from the Sanskrit Cina (derived from the name of the Chinese Qin Dynasty, pronounced `Chin’) which was translated as `Cin’ by the Persians and seems to have become popularized through trade along the Silk Road from China to the rest of the world. The Romans and the Greeks knew the country as `Seres’, “the land where silk comes from”.

The name `China’ does not appear in print in the west until 1516 CE in Barbosa’s journals narrating his travels in the east (though the Europeans had long known of China through trade via the Silk Road). Marco Polo, the famous explorer who familiarized China to Europe in the 13th century CE, referred to the land as `Cathay’. In Mandarin Chinese, the country is known as `Zhongguo” meaning `central state’ or `middle empire’. Pre-History Well before the advent of recognizable civilization in the region, the land was occupied by hominids. The Peculiar History of Foot Binding in China. Wikimedia Commons For around ten centuries, successive generations of Chinese women endured a practice when, as children, their feet were systematically broken and shaped in such a way that they resembled hooves. The tradition, known as foot binding, eventually came to symbolize China's backwardness, a relic from the country's distant past.

But despite the efforts of reformists, foot binding persisted well into the 20th century. In the January 1923 issue of The Atlantic, Pearl Buck (whose book The Good Earth is one of the most influential ever written about China) described meeting a young woman who had recently decided to unbind her feet in accordance with the latest fashion: Yesterday she came in a delicate blue satin of a more fashionable cut than I had ever seen; her feet were unbound and in little clumping, square, black-leather foreign shoes. She was evidently very proud of them; they looked like shoes for a very rough little American boy, and had steel taps on the heels.

Home. Introduction Endangered System of Women's Writing from Hunan, China Recent Research Findings from Jiangyong Prefecture , China Matriarchal Society of Moso , China Singing of Kangrige Anti-Japanese Song Some Nushu Collection Worldwide Researchers in Socio- linguistics & Chinese Literature Introdution to New Book“女文字研究 The Report on Present Situation of Nushu 女書and Its International Symposium Held in China Report on Symposium on Nushu Announcement of Symposium on Nushu Chinese Women's Script: Research Report, September, 2004 Chinese Women's Script: Research Report, May, 2006 Report of the field research conducted in August and September, 2007 Report of the field research conducted in August and September, 2008 A New Three-day Missive (三朝書San Chao Shu) Discovered!! The Existential Assertion of Nüshu A Report on the Exhibition of Nushu Collection(2010/10) 2011/02/27-03/07 Last transmitter of Nüshu visit Tokyo Chinese Women's Script: Research Report 2011 Reference Links Comments.

China's secret 'women only' language. A decade ago Chinese-American author Lisa See was researching an article on footbinding when she found a reference to Nushu, the world's only "women's writing". Though the origins were murky, the script revealed a culture of women's relationships and sparked the idea for her novel, Snow Flower and the Secret Fan, the film of which, co-produced by Rupert Murdoch's wife Wendi Deng, is released tomorrow.

After having their feet bound at around the age of seven, girls in Jiangyong County in Hunan province would live indoors – first in the "women's chamber" of their own homes, and later in the homes of their husband's family. To ease their isolation and offer support in their pain, girls from the same village were brought together as "sworn sisters" until their weddings.

Women used Nushu – a script unique to the area – to write to their laotongs after they "married out" into different villages. Yet until the 1960s few outside the province knew about it, and no men could read it, says See. Chinese Dynasties - Chinese & World Chronology.