Matter. Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.
This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Cosmopolitanism. Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. A cosmopolitan community might be based on an inclusive morality, a shared economic relationship, or a political structure that encompasses different nations. In a cosmopolitan community individuals from different places (e.g. nation-states) form relationships of mutual respect.
As an example, Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations (physical, economic, etc.) enter relationships of mutual respect despite their differing beliefs (religious, political, etc.). Various cities and locales, past or present, have or are defined as "cosmopolitan"; that does not necessarily mean that all or most of their inhabitants consciously embrace the above philosophy.
Susanne Bobzien. Susanne Bobzien, FBA is a German-born philosopher, whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy. She currently is Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford.
Gottlob Frege. Chrysippus. Chrysippus of Soli (Greek: Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus; c. 279 – c. 206 BC) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.
He was a native of Soli, Cilicia, but moved to Athens as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium, the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge, ethics and physics. Propositional calculus. Usually in Truth-functional propositional logic, formulas are interpreted as having either a truth value of true or a truth value of false.
[clarification needed] Truth-functional propositional logic and systems isomorphic to it, are considered to be zeroth-order logic. History Although propositional logic (which is interchangeable with propositional calculus) had been hinted by earlier philosophers, it was developed into a formal logic by Chrysippus and expanded by the Stoics. The logic was focused on propositions. This advancement was different from the traditional syllogistic logic which was focused on terms.
Propositional logic was eventually refined using symbolic logic. Just as propositional logic can be considered an advancement from the earlier syllogistic logic, Gottlob Frege's predicate logic was an advancement from the earlier propositional logic. Baruch Spinoza. Biography Family and community origins Spinoza's ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent, and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews that had settled in the city of Amsterdam in the wake of the Alhambra Decree in Spain (1492) and the Portuguese Inquisition (1536), which had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian peninsula. Attracted by the Decree of Toleration issued in 1579 by the Union of Utrecht, Portuguese "conversos" first sailed to Amsterdam in 1593 and promptly reconverted to Judaism. In 1598 permission was granted to build a synagogue, and in 1615 an ordinance for the admission and government of the Jews was passed. As a community of exiles, the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam were highly proud of their identity. Spinoza's father, Miguel (Michael), and his uncle, Manuel, then moved to Amsterdam where they resumed the practice of Judaism.
Classical pantheism. Classical Pantheism is a phrase that has been used in various ways.
The most common use is as a term used by American philosopher Charles Hartshorne to describe theological deterministic philosophies of those he considers pantheists such as Baruch Spinoza and the Stoics. The term has also been used to mean Pantheism in the classical Greek and Roman era, or archetypal pantheism as variously defined by different authors. Determinism. Determinism is the philosophical position that for every event, including human action, there exist conditions that could cause no other event.
"There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event. " Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations. Monism. Monism is the philosophical view that a variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance.
The wide definition states that all existing things go back to a source which is distinct from them (e.g. in Neoplatonism everything is derived from The One). A commonly-used, restricted definition of monism asserts the presence of a unifying substance or essence. One must distinguish "stuff monism" from "thing monism". According to stuff monism there is only one kind of stuff (e.g. matter or mind), although there may be many things made out of this stuff. According to thing-monism there exists strictly speaking only a single thing (e.g. the universe), which can only be artificially and arbitrarily divided into many things.
The term monism originated from Western philosophy, and has often been applied to various religions. History It was later also applied to the theory of absolute identity set forth by Hegel and Schelling. Definitions a. B. Stoicism. Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC.
The Stoics taught that emotions resulted in errors of judgment which were destructive, due to the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom, and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life (lex devina), and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how that person behaved. To live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they taught that everything was rooted in nature. In the Renaissance there was Neostoicism, that is a syncretic philosophical movement, joining Stoicism and Christianity, influenced by Justus Lipsius.
The early 21st century witnesses another reincarnation of Stoicism, namely the modern Stoicism movement.