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Apophenia. Apophenia /æpɵˈfiːniə/ is the experience of perceiving patterns or connections in random or meaningless data.


The term is attributed to Klaus Conrad[1] by Peter Brugger,[2] who defined it as the "unmotivated seeing of connections" accompanied by a "specific experience of an abnormal meaningfulness", but it has come to represent the human tendency to seek patterns in random information in general, such as with gambling and paranormal phenomena.[3] Meanings and forms[edit] Selection bias - Wikipedia. Selection bias is the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.[1] It is sometimes referred to as the selection effect.

Selection bias - Wikipedia

The phrase "selection bias" most often refers to the distortion of a statistical analysis, resulting from the method of collecting samples. If the selection bias is not taken into account, then some conclusions of the study may not be accurate. Confirmation bias.

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,[Note 1] is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities.[1] It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning.

Confirmation bias

People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. Simon Newcomb - Wikipedia. Simon Newcomb (March 12, 1835 – July 11, 1909) was a Canadian-American astronomer, applied mathematician and autodidactic polymath, who was Professor of Mathematics in the U.S.

Simon Newcomb - Wikipedia

Navy and at Johns Hopkins.[1] Though he had little conventional schooling, he made important contributions to timekeeping as well as other fields in applied mathematics such as economics and statistics in addition to writing a science fiction novel. The oldest human genome ever has been sequenced, and it could rewrite our history. Scientists have sequenced the oldest human DNA ever, extracted from 430,000-year-old samples of fossilised tooth and a thigh bones, found in Spain’s Sima de los Huesos, which translates to "pit of bones".

The oldest human genome ever has been sequenced, and it could rewrite our history

In doing so, the team from Germany has found evidence that the ancient ancestors of modern humans must have split from the ancestors of Neanderthals hundreds of thousands of years earlier than we thought, which means it might be time for us to redraw the human family tree. Located in the Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo cave system in north-central Spain, the Sima de los Huesos archaeological site contains the largest and oldest collection of human remains ever discovered, with more than 6,500 fossilised bone fragments - including over 500 teeth alone - from at least 28 individual hominins having been uncovered so far. Until recently, the bones found in Sima de los Huesos were attributed to the early ancestors of Neanderthals, which evolved around 100,000 years earlier than the Neanderthals. Bodegas Tradicion 20 Year Old Pedro Ximenez Sherry - Imported. Psmith the Journalist : P. G. Wodehouse : 9781841591568. A Machine to End War pdf. Pleurocybella porrigens. Pleurocybella porrigens has historically been generally regarded as edible[3][4] but this has been brought into question by recent deaths apparently associated with P. porrigens consumption.

Pleurocybella porrigens

Synonyms for Pleurocybella porrigens include Pleurotus porrigens, Phyllotus porrigens, Dendrosarcus porrigens, Pleurotellus porrigens, and Nothopanus porrigens. Toxicity[edit] Although P. porrigens is generally regarded as edible,[3][4] as of 2011, it has been implicated in two documented outbreaks involving fatal encephalopathy. Both incidents were in Japan, and most victims had pre-existing kidney disorders.[5][6][7] List of deadly fungi. Although many people have a fear of mushroom poisoning by "toadstools", only a small number of the many macroscopic fruiting bodies commonly known as mushrooms and toadstools have proven fatal to humans.

List of deadly fungi

Mushroom poisoning. To prevent mushroom poisoning, mushroom gatherers need to be very familiar with the mushrooms they intend to collect as well as with any similar-looking toxic species.

Mushroom poisoning

In addition, edibility of mushrooms may depend on methods of preparation for cooking. Collectors also need to be well aware that edibility or toxicity of some species varies with geographic location. [citation needed] Folk traditions[edit] There are many folk traditions concerning the defining features of poisonous mushrooms.[1][2] However, there are no general identifiers for poisonous mushrooms (only guidelines to identify mushrooms themselves exist, if one knows what mushroom is toxic), and so such traditions are unreliable guides. Complexity Explorer. Complexity Explorer. Complexity Explorer. The Dispossessed. The Dispossessed: An Ambiguous Utopia is a 1974 utopian science fiction novel by Ursula K.

The Dispossessed

Portal:Anarchism. Ansible. An ansible is a fictional machine capable of instantaneous or superluminal communication.


Typically it is depicted as a lunch-box-sized[citation needed] object with some combination of microphone, speaker, keyboard and display. It can send and receive messages to and from a corresponding device over any distance whatsoever with no delay. Ansibles occur as plot devices in science fiction literature. Origin[edit] Superluminal communication. Superluminal communication is the hypothetical process by which one might send information at faster-than-light (FTL) speeds. The scientific consensus is that faster-than-light communication is not possible and to date superluminal communication has not been achieved in any experiment. Some theories and experiments include:

List of archaeological periods. The names for archaeological periods in the list of archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region. This is a list of the main divisions by continent and region. Dating also varies considerably and those given are broad approximations across wide areas. The three-age system has been used in many areas, referring to the prehistorical and historical periods identified by tool manufacture and use, of Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. Since these ages are distinguished by the development of technology, it is natural that the dates to which these refer vary in different parts of the world.

Garden of Ninfa. Ruins of the church of Santa Maria Maggiore History[edit] Church of Santa Maria Maggiore: ruins with traces of frescoes The garden includes the ruins of the ancient settlement of Ninfa, whose name seems to derive from a classical era nymphaeum, a temple dedicated to nymphs, located on an island in the small lake; nymphs were believed to dwell in mountains and groves, by springs and rivers, and also in trees and in valleys and cool grottoes.[2] According to Charles Quest-Ritson's book Ninfa: The Most Romantic Garden in the World, the Gardens of Ninfa's first documented evidence is from Pliny the Younger, who described a temple on the premises dedicated to water nymphs.[3] Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha. Saints Tryphon (Trypho), Respicius, and Nympha (Ninfa) are Christian saints who were formerly celebrated jointly on 10 November in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church from the eleventh century until the twentieth.[1] Saint Tryphon continues to be celebrated (separately) on 1 February, and the 14 February on both the Orthodox liturgical calendar and the Roman Calendar of Saints.

Saint Tryphon[edit] Saint Tryphon is said to have been born at Kampsade (Campsada, in Phrygia, now Turkey,[2] and as a boy took care of geese. His name is derived from the Greek τρυφη (tryphe) meaning "softness, delicacy". He acquired fame as a healer, especially of animals, and is considered one of the Holy Unmercenaries, particularly invoked on farms.[3] Hegemony. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu". Later, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society.

"[7] Also, it could be used for the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over others; from which was derived hegemonism, as in the idea that the Great Powers meant to establish European hegemony over Asia and Africa.[8] The Marxist theory of cultural hegemony, associated particularly with Antonio Gramsci, is the idea that the ruling class can manipulate the value system and mores of a society, so that their view becomes the world view (Weltanschauung): in Terry Eagleton's words, 'Gramsci normally uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates'.[9]

Cultural hegemony. Praxis. Władysław Anders. Kutno. Kutno [ˈkutnɔ] is a town located in central Poland with 48,000 inhabitants (2005) and an area of 33.6 km2 (13.0 sq mi). 'Lost' City of Atlantis: Fact & Fable. Lost Civilizations: Atlantis: The Story of Atlantis. American Civilization. Solomon. Asmodeus. Sanhedrin. Sennacherib. Ahasuerus.

Hidden Secrets Of Money - Free Video Series on Money Secrets. The Biggest Scam In The History Of Mankind (Debt Ceiling Truth) Secret societies. 10 Most Brilliant Social Experiments.