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Dating back to 5500 BC The Tărtăria tablets, earliest form of writing in the world. The three tablets were discovered in 1961 at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.

Dating back to 5500 BC The Tărtăria tablets, earliest form of writing in the world

The tablets bear Vinca symbols of the Neolithic Turdas-Vinca culture dating back to 2700 BC. The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa. Photo Credit.


Why is English so weirdly different from other langu... English speakers know that their language is odd. So do people saddled with learning it non-natively. The oddity that we all perceive most readily is its spelling, which is indeed a nightmare. In countries where English isn’t spoken, there is no such thing as a ‘spelling bee’ competition. For a normal language, spelling at least pretends a basic correspondence to the way people pronounce the words.

But English is not normal. How Finnish librarian Antti Aarne decoded the world of folklore. Cinderella and Odysseus may seem at first to have little in common.

How Finnish librarian Antti Aarne decoded the world of folklore

The stories of the Disney princess and the Greek sailor diverge in almost every detail, but the two have a common heritage in folklore: they are characters from legend whose stories have been passed from generation to generation, used to instill lessons in their audience. Such stories may seem to be an unquantifiable part of the human experience. The stories we tell appear woven from little more than the ethereal stuff of our imagination, a part of our psyche that thrills and torments us, but eludes logic. And yet, a century ago Finnish professor Antti Aarne created a system to bring order to the chaos. His logic-based system gave numbers to various tropes: A maiden promises herself to a frog in a spring is tale No. 440. List of Latin phrases (full)

This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases.

List of Latin phrases (full)

Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before that of ancient Rome. This list is a combination of the twenty divided "List of Latin phrases" pages, for users who have no trouble loading large pages and prefer a single page to scroll or search through. Khmer language. Classification[edit] Khmer is a member of the Austroasiatic language family, the most archaic family in an area that stretches from the Malay Peninsula through Southeast Asia to East India.[7] Austroasiatic, which also includes Mon, Vietnamese and Munda, has been studied since 1856 and was first proposed as a language family in 1907.[8] Despite the amount of research, there is still doubt about the internal relationship of the languages of Austroasiatic.[9] Most classifications place Khmer in the eastern branch of a Mon-Khmer sub-grouping.[2][10] In these classification schemes Khmer's closest genetic relatives are the Bahnaric and Pearic languages.[11] More recent classifications doubt the validity of the Mon-Khmer sub-grouping and place the Khmer language as its own branch of Austroasiatic equidistant from the other 12 branches of the family.[9] Geographic distribution and dialects[edit] Approximate locations where various dialects of Khmer are spoken Historical periods[edit]

Khmer language

Primary_Human_Language_Families_Map.png (PNG Image, 1880 × 740 pixels) - Scaled (54%) Language family. Basque language. Stand Still. Stay Silent - webcomic, page 196. Page 19614 October. 2014 Language trees for the language lovers!

Stand Still. Stay Silent - webcomic, page 196

I've gathered pretty much all the data for this from, which is an awesome well of information about language families. And if anyone finds some important language missing let me know! (Naturally most tiny languages didn't make it on the graph, aww. There's literally hundreds of them in the Indo-European family alone and I could only fit so many on this page, so most sub-1 mil. speaker languages that don't have official status somewhere got the cut.) Linguistic family tree reveals the roots of Nordic languages. A survey of more than 3 million patients who’ve been under anaesthetic in the UK and Ireland has provided new insight into the traumatic experiences of those who have woken up during surgery.

Linguistic family tree reveals the roots of Nordic languages

According to the research, led by Oxford University Hospitals in the UK, the phenomenon, known as “anaesthesia awareness” is relatively rare - roughly only one in 19,600 patients surveyed had woken up during surgery. This is lower than previous US studies, which suggested the rate was as high as one in 1,000 surgical patients. But for lighter anaesthesia procedures, such as emergency C-sections, the risk is much higher - around one in 670 had experienced it. Anaesthesia awareness was also more common among patients who had received paralytics - substances that block the nerves from stimulating muscles - as part of their anaesthetic mix.

Fquvmw7rfjmw0j6hob0l.png (PNG Image, 1242 × 939 pixels) - Scaled (82%) Intertwingularity. Intertwingularity is a term coined by Ted Nelson to express the complexity of interrelations in human knowledge.


Nelson wrote in Computer Lib/Dream Machines (Nelson 1974, p. DM45): and added the following comment in the revised edition (Nelson 1987, p. DM31): Hierarchical and sequential structures, especially popular since Gutenberg, are usually forced and artificial. References[edit] Nelson, Theodor (1974), Computer Lib: You can and must understand computers now/Dream Machines: New freedoms through computer screens—a minority report (1st ed.), South Bend, IN: the distributors, ISBN 0-89347-002-3 Nelson, Theodor (1987), Computer Lib/Dream Machines (Rev. ed.), Redmond, WA: Tempus Books of Microsoft Press, ISBN 0-914845-49-7 External links[edit] See also[edit] Artificial Languages. Artificial Languages. E-Prime. Some scholars advocate using E-Prime as a device to clarify thinking and strengthen writing.[1] For example, the sentence "the film was good" could not be expressed under the rules of E-Prime, and the speaker might instead say "I liked the film" or "the film made me laugh".


The E-Prime versions communicate the speaker's experience rather than judgment, making it harder for the writer or reader to confuse opinion with fact. History[edit] D. David Bourland, Jr., who had studied under Alfred Korzybski, came to the idea of E-Prime as an addition to Korzybski's general semantics in late 1940s.[2] Bourland published the concept in a 1965 essay entitled A Linguistic Note: Writing in E-Prime (originally published in the General Semantics Bulletin). The essay quickly generated controversy within the general semantics field, partly because practitioners of general semantics sometimes saw Bourland as attacking the verb 'to be' as such, and not just certain usages. Globish (Nerriere) List of constructed languages. This list of notable constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres.

List of constructed languages

Auxiliary languages[edit] International auxiliary languages are languages constructed to provide communication among all human beings, or a significant portion, without necessarily replacing native languages. Controlled languages[edit] Controlled languages are natural languages that have in some way been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable in certain circumstances, such as when a person does not speak the original language well.

Evolutionary linguistics. Evolutionary linguistics is a cover term for the scientific study of both the origins and development of language as well as the cultural evolution of languages.[1] The main challenge in this research is the lack of empirical data: spoken language leaves practically no traces.

Evolutionary linguistics

This led to an abandonment of the field for more than a century. Since the late 1980s, the field has been revived in the wake of progress made in the related fields of psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, evolutionary anthropology, evolutionary psychology, and cognitive science. History[edit] The Stammbaumtheorie proved very productive for comparative linguistics, but did not solve the major problem of studying the origin of language: the lack of fossil records. Some scholars abandoned the question of the origin of language as unsolvable. Recent developments[edit] Signaling game. A signaling game is a dynamic, Bayesian game with two players, the sender (S) and the receiver (R). The sender has a certain type, t, which is given by nature. Language-game (philosophy) Artificial language. This article is about languages that naturally emerge in computer simulations or controlled psychological experiments with humans. For planned or constructed human languages, see constructed language.

For formal computer languages, see formal language. Artificial languages are languages of a typically very limited size which emerge either in computer simulations between artificial agents, robot interactions or controlled psychological experiments with humans. They are different from both constructed languages and formal languages in that they have not been consciously devised by an individual or group but are the result of (distributed) conventionalisation processes, much like natural languages.

Speech-language pathology. TRACE (psycholinguistics) Second-language acquisition. Psychological nativism. Psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. [1] Initial forays into psycholinguistics were largely philosophical ventures, due mainly to a lack of cohesive data on how the human brain functioned.

Problem of religious language. The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted. Because these traditional conceptions of God make it difficult to describe God, religious language has the potential to be meaningless. Constructed language. Category:Lists of languages. Language.

A mural in Teotihuacan, Mexico (c. 2nd century) depicting a person emitting a speech scroll from his mouth, symbolizing speech. Australian Aboriginal languages. The primary typological division in Australian languages: Pama–Nyungan languages (tan) and non-Pama–Nyungan languages (mustard and grey).

Mustard-coloured languages may be related to Pama–Nyungan.


Swerve. The Holy Book of Literary Craft.