Physics & Math of Lighting and Electricity
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aka " opto ," " opto-isolator ." A DMX data-distribution device, used when more than one data stream is required, or when the number of devices on a single line exceeds the maximum of 32. Required as the protocol does not permit "Y" cables. The "opto" part is short for "optically isolated," a desirable feature so that a fault on one output cannot propagate to other outputs. Some opto-splitters just provide electrical isolation between the input and the outputs, but the best types have a separate transformer -isolated power supply or DC -to-DC converter for the input and each of the outputs.
A DMX splitter/buffer. It allows many devices that are controlled by DMX to be plugged into one controller, like a lighting console . DMX512 is a standard for digital communication networks that are commonly used to control stage lighting and effects. It was originally intended as a standardized method for controlling light dimmers, which, prior to DMX512, had employed various incompatible proprietary protocols . It soon became the primary method for linking controllers, dimmers and special effects devices such as fog machines and moving 'intelligent' lights.
Animation of a simplified stepper motor (unipolar) Frame 1: The top electromagnet (1) is turned on, attracting the nearest teeth of the gear-shaped iron rotor. With the teeth aligned to electromagnet 1, they will be slightly offset from right electromagnet (2). Frame 2: The top electromagnet (1) is turned off, and the right electromagnet (2) is energized, pulling the teeth into alignment with it. This results in a rotation of 3.6° in this example. Frame 3: The bottom electromagnet (3) is energized; another 3.6° rotation occurs. Frame 4: The left electromagnet (4) is energized, rotating again by 3.6°.
3 - Phase Power