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Star Size Comparison 2. Earth Wasn’t Always the Solar System’s Only Habitable Planet. On the day that I was born—winter solstice, 1959—a headline in Life magazine proclaimed “Target Venus: There May be Life There!” It told of how scientists rode a balloon to an altitude of 80,000 feet to make telescope observations of Venus’s atmosphere, and how their discovery of water raised hopes that there could be living things there. As a kid I thrilled to tales of undersea adventure with telepathic Venusian frogs in Isaac Asimov’s juvenile science-fiction novel Lucky Starr and the Oceans of Venus.

In 1975, when I was 15, a family friend—a planetary scientist—gave me a picture of the first-ever photograph taken from the surface of another planet: Venus. The Soviet Venera 9 probe had sent back a black-and-white image of a landscape with angular rocks and fine-grained dirt. A bright patch of sky made it seem much less unearthly than the Apollo moon shots I had obsessed over, and more like a strange, overcast desert land that you might hope to visit someday. The decline took time. Long-term hydrocarbon trade options for Maghreb core region and Europe - Renewable Energy based synthetic fuels for a net zero emissions world. Preprint to be published in the proceedings of the SGEM Vienna Green 2016 Sessions, November 2-5, Vienna, Austria electrified in future, thus the market size for hydrocarbons would shrink to mainly aviation, heavy vehicles, and non-energetic industrial applications. Thus, the chances are high that there would always be a surplus of crude oil and NG, which can easily keep the market price below the synthetic fuels production cost.

On the other hand, there would be more restrictions on fossil-based hydrocarbons due to environmental issues and emissions cost, in particular due to the global net zero agreement at the COP21 in Paris. Which conventional diesel cannot be produced at that quality anymore. Carbon-neutral, sulphur-free SNG and SLF can be considered as one of the main substitutions, even at a higher production cost. In the Maghreb region would be one of the cheapest available options for Europe. A decent market potential is seen for both SNG and RE-diesel for the EU in 2030 and BP, 2016. Energy, Environment and Resources Department. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Click to the link below to read details: Assessment Reports: These are published materials composed of the full scientific and technical assessment of climate change, generally in three volumes, one for each of the Working Groups of the IPCC, together with their Summaries for Policymakers, plus a Synthesis Report Special Reports: These are materials that provide an assessment of a specific issue and generally follow the same structure as a volume of an Assessment ReportMethodology Reports: These are materials that provide practical guidelines for the preparation of greenhouse gas inventories Translations in non-UN languagesReporting an Error These are published materials composed of the full scientific and technical assessment of climate change, generally in three volumes, one for each of the Working Groups of the IPCC, plus a Synthesis Report.

Each of the Working Group volumes is composed of individual chapters, an optional Technical Summary and a Summary for Policymakers. Cover. Climate Engineering | IASS Potsdam. Zwar gibt es noch Hoffnung, dass die Risiken des Klimawandels durch eine Reduktion des Treibhausgasausstoßes begrenzt werden können, doch die Zeit wird knapp. Das Bewusstsein, dass heute die Weichen für die künftige Entwicklung des Klimas gestellt werden, hat Forderungen nach der Erforschung von direkten Eingriffen ins Klimasystem laut werden lassen. Diese werden als „Climate Engineering“ oder „Geoengineering“ bezeichnet. Beide Begriffe beschreiben ein breites und großenteils hypothetisches Spektrum von Ansätzen, das Klima zu manipulieren. Ziel des Climate Engineering ist es, einige der Auswirkungen des Klimawandels abzuschwächen oder zu verhindern – vor allem die globale Erwärmung und die damit verbundenen Folgen. Die Bestrebungen, den Ausstoß von Treibhausgasen zu senken, sind bislang nur mäßig erfolgreich.

Chancen und Risiken von Climate Engineering Es gibt verschiedene Climate-Engineering-Ansätze. Forschung zu Climate Engineering am IASS Foto Startseite: (c) istock. Das Pariser Abkommen und die globale Klimapolitik | IASS Potsdam. Der gegenwärtig zu beobachtende Klimawandel wird zu einem großen Teil von Menschen verursacht.

Vor allem die Emissionen aus der Verbrennung fossiler Stoffe wie Öl und Gas haben zu einem Anstieg der Treibhausgaskonzentration in der Atmosphäre geführt. Indikatoren des Klimawandels wie erhöhte Durchschnittstemperaturen, abschmelzende Gletscher und ein ansteigender Meeresspiegel haben verheerende Auswirkungen auf Mensch und Umwelt. Ein koordiniertes weltweites Handeln zum Klimaschutz ist daher notwendig. Auf der Grundlage der Erkenntnis, dass das Klima ein gemeinsames Anliegen der gesamten Menschheit darstellt, einigten sich im Dezember 2015 195 Staaten auf der 21.

Von der Gründung des Weltklimarates zum Pariser Abkommen Wesentlich für die Zusammenarbeit zum Klimaschutz auf internationaler Ebene und die Entstehung klimarechtlicher Instrumente sind wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse über die negativen Auswirkungen anthropogen erzeugter Schadstoffe. Das Pariser Abkommen Die 21. Oberthür, S. Ressourcenverbrauch: Online-Rechner zeigen, wie sehr wir der Umwelt schaden. Online finden sich viele Tests, die den Einfluss des eigenen Lebensstils auf die Umwelt analysieren.

Doch nicht alle berechnen das Gleiche. Wir haben sie uns angesehen. Die Erde ist müde, jedes Jahr ein bisschen früher. Der sogenannte Earth Overshoot Day war in diesem Jahr bereits am 8. Naheliegend ist, den Ressourcenverbrauch einer Aktivität oder eines Produkts abzubilden – das macht der ökologische Rucksack. Wie schwer der ökologische Rucksack ist, den man durch den eigenen Lebensstil mit sich herumträgt, kann man zum Beispiel mit dem Ressourcen-Rechner des Wuppertal Instituts ausrechnen. 6.000 Liter Wasser für eine Jeans Viele Umweltbelastungen finden allerdings keinen Eingang in die Berechnungen.

Den Wasserverbrauch bildet wiederum der Water Footprint ab. Wie groß ist mein CO2-Fußabdruck? Ein weiteres Maß dafür, wie der eigene Alltag der Umwelt schadet, ist der CO2-Fußabdruck. Bestes Tool trotz methodischer Schwächen. Human-caused climate change has been happening for a lot longer than we thought, scientists say. Coral coring at Rowley Shoals, west of Broome in Western Australia, November 2009. Analyzing coral cores is one way scientists can look back into the oceans’ climate history. (Credit: Eric Matson, Australian Institute of Marine Science) FOR USE WITH STORY ON ABRAM ET AL. 8/24/16 A new paper is challenging our understanding of how long human-caused climate change has been at work on Earth.

And the authors say their findings may question existing ideas about how sensitive the planet is to greenhouse gas emissions — with potentially big implications for our global climate policy. The new study, just out on Wednesday in the journal Nature, suggests human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change has been going on for decades longer than existing temperature records indicate. “We can see that by only looking from the 1880s on, we don’t have the full picture of how we’ve been changing the climate,” she said. But the researchers stand by their interpretation of the reconstructions. business true. What can a technologist do about climate change? A personal view. Say we allocate $3.0 billion for the following program: Car-owners who trade in an old car that gets less than 17 MPG, and purchase a new car that gets better than 24 MPG, will receive a $3,500 rebate.

We estimate that this will get 828,571 old cars off the road. It will save 1,068 million gallons of gas (or 68 hours worth of U.S. gas consumption.) It will avoid 9.97 million tons CO2e, or 0.14% of annual U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The abatement cost is $301 per ton CO2e of federal spending, although it’s -$20 per ton CO2e on balance if you account for the money saved by consumers buying less gas. This passage gives some estimates of what the proposal would actually do. But there’s something more going on. Some numbers above are in green. This is possible because the author is not just publishing words. Readers are thus encouraged to examine and critique the model. Modeling leads naturally from the particular to the general. Das Märchen vom grünen Wachstum – warum der Markt das Klima nicht retten wird (1) | zebralogs.

Im Mittelpunkt des grünen Wachstums steht ein ressourcenschonender Konsum. Das Versprechen also, dass wir unseren Lebensstil und unsere Konsummuster beibehalten können, wenn wir sie nur etwas „grüner“ gestalten. Allerdings gibt es zahlreiche Belege dafür, dass die Vereinbarkeit von Wachstum und Ökologie eine Utopie bleiben wird. „Die Green Economy steigert die gesellschaftliche Wohlfahrt, bekämpft Armut und strebt soziale Gerechtigkeit an“ und das alles innerhalb der „ökologischen Grenzen“ des Planeten Erde.

So bewirbt die Bundesregierung eine Forschungsagenda zum grünen Wachstum. Und auch die deutsche Wirtschaft, in Form des Bundesverbandes der deutschen Industrie (BDI), lobt das grüne Wachstum (hier) in einem gemeinsamen Memorandum mit dem Umweltministerium als Chance für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung, die Wirtschaftswachstum mit Umwelt- und Klimaschutz vereinen wird. Doch ist grünes Wachstum wirklich eine solche eierlegende Wollmilchsau? So weit – so gut. A New Geopolitics of EU Energy Security. Events in Ukraine have propelled energy security back to the top of the EU’s foreign policy agenda.

Russia’s actions have spurred sharper consideration of the need for energy diversification, with Moscow closing gas supplies to Ukraine and debates sharpening over the South Stream pipeline. Instability in the Middle East and North Africa compounds the challenge of finding reliable sources of alternative supplies. What makes this backdrop particularly daunting is that crises in Russia and Ukraine and parts of the Middle East coincide with other vital energy security challenges. There are in fact three aspects of EU energy policies that currently stand at pivotal points of redefinition. First is the extent to which new EU climate change policies will affect the union’s broader international influence.

Second are the changing parameters of international energy markets and the new foreign policy challenges these present for the EU. A Leading Player in Energy and Climate Debates? Conclusion. Meet the woman who first identified the greenhouse effect. Eunice Foote demonstrated the heat-trapping properties of carbon dioxide at a scientific conference in 1856, newly digitised records show Irish physicist John Tyndall is commonly credited with discovering the greenhouse effect, which underpins the science of climate change. Starting in 1859, he published a series of studies on the way greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide trapped heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. A recently digitised copy of The American Journal of Science and Arts suggests a woman beat him to it, however.

It includes a presentation by Eunice Foote to a top US science conference in 1856. She describes filling glass jars with water vapour, carbon dioxide and air, and comparing how much they heated up in the sun. “The highest effect of the sun’s rays I have found to be in carbonic acid gas,” she writes, using the contemporary term for carbon dioxide. Weekly briefing: Sign up for your essential climate politics update Wow @KHayhoe! It states: “Prof. Sciencemag. Last month, geographer Richard Heede received a subpoena from Representative Lamar Smith (R-TX), chairman of the House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Smith, a climate change doubter, became concerned when the attorneys general of several states launched investigations into whether ExxonMobil had committed fraud by sowing doubts about climate change even as its own scientists knew it was taking place.

The congressman suspected a conspiracy between the attorneys general and environmental advocates, and he wanted to see all the communications among them. Predictably, his targets included advocacy organizations such as Greenpeace, 350.org, and the Union of Concerned Scientists. They also included Heede, who works on his own aboard a rented houseboat on San Francisco Bay in California. Heede is less well known than his fellow recipients, but his work is no less threatening to the fossil fuel industry. Cumulative Emissions Overview (million metric tons of CO2) The Challenge of Cutting Coal Dependence. But making those who will suffer from this transformation whole is not just a matter of fairness. A successful transition to a low-carbon future requires their support.

And yet they remain pretty much an afterthought in the public debate over climate change. “The scale and the scope of the transition is enormous,” said Matt Baker, a former commissioner with the Colorado Public Utilities Commission who is now a program officer for energy and climate at the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. “You can’t do it in the time frame we are thinking about without the consent of the so-called losers in the transition.” Germany may have few coal workers left: Only about 63,000 jobs are directly or indirectly related to coal out of a total work force of 43 million. But they are well organized into powerful unions.

Photo Employment in American coal mines has been falling for decades, pushed more by market forces than environmental policy. The stakes are even larger in China. Intro To Carbon Pricing (Video) Carbon Pricing Published on September 2nd, 2016 | by Guest Contributor September 2nd, 2016 by Guest Contributor Originally published on The Climate Reality Project.

You’ve heard the phrase. Carbon price: The price for avoided or released carbon dioxide (CO2) or CO2-equivalent emissions. We all learn in science class that carbon is one of the building blocks of life. Let’s start with the basics. To put it another way, carbon pollution is the number one contributor to climate change. Many of these effects have already begun. You don’t have to look far to see how these and other consequences of climate change can get expensive. And guess who ends up paying these costs? And the companies responsible for the carbon pollution behind all this? We know that the public costs of burning fossil fuels are enormous, but the market prices of carbon-intensive products and services don’t reflect that reality. Here’s How You Can Help So, what can you do about carbon pollution?

1. 2. Drive an electric car? The Human Impact upon Planet Earth | DIIS. Interview mit Frank Umbach. Warum braucht die EU eine gemeinsame Energie-Außenpolitik? Die Einflussmöglichkeiten auf die künftige globale Energiepolitik, die Klimapolitik, die werden von Jahr zu Jahr schwächer. Auch nationalstaatlich sind wir, selbst Deutschland als größte Wirtschaftsmacht in Europa, überhaupt nicht mehr in Lage entsprechend unsere eigenen Interessen wahrzunehmen. Wir können es nur in diesem europäischen Kollektiv. Müssen die Mitgliedstaaten mehr Kompetenzen in der Energiepolitik an Brüssel abgeben? Ich glaube es wird schrittweise sicherlich passieren. Braucht die EU einen gemeinsamen Energie-Binnenmarkt? Ich glaube ja, ohne diesen Binnenmarkt wird es keine einheitliche Regulierung und Politik geben können. Wie wirkt sich die Energiewende in Deutschland auf die Energieversorgung der europäischen Nachbarstaaten aus? In meinen Augen ist die prinzipielle Richtung dieser Energiewende, der Ausbau der Erneuerbaren, langfristig richtig.

Ich denke, das trifft vor allem auf Schiefergas zu. Dr. Are We Feeling Collective Grief Over Climate Change? “Gravity Power” Energy Storage Plans in Germany. Why Superfreakonomics' authors are wrong on geo-engineering | Environment. NRC geoengineering report: Climate hacking is dangerous and barking mad. Die Energie- und Klimapolitik der EU nach dem Brexit-Referendum - SWP. Alice, der Klimawandel und die Katze Zeta | Edition Rugerup: Internationale Lyrik und Prosa.