OIL SAND EXTRACTION
Steam-assisted gravity drainage - Wiki. Canada is the single largest supplier of imported oil to the United States—even larger, despite popular conceptions, than Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, or Nigeria.
There are two primary methods of oil sands recovery. The strip-mining technique is known best. However, the more recent steam-assisted gravity drainage technique (SAGD) is better suited to deeper deposits. Much of the future growth of production in the Canadian oil sands will be from SAGD. Water injection (oil production) - Wiki. Water injection or water flooding refers to the method in the oil industry where water is injected into the reservoir, usually to increase pressure and thereby stimulate production.
Water injection wells can be found both on- and offshore, to increase oil recovery from an existing reservoir. Water is injected (1) to support pressure of the reservoir (also known as voidage replacement), and (2) to sweep or displace oil from the reservoir, and push it towards a well. Artificial lift - Wiki. Artificial lift refers to the use of artificial means to increase the flow of liquids, such as crude oil or water, from a production well.
Generally this is achieved by the use of a mechanical device inside the well (known as pump or velocity string) or by decreasing the weight of the hydrostatic column by injecting gas into the liquid some distance down the well. Artificial lift is needed in wells when there is insufficient pressure in the reservoir to lift the produced fluids to the surface, but often used in naturally flowing wells (which do not technically need it) to increase the flow rate above what would flow naturally. The produced fluid can be oil, water or a mix of oil and water, typically mixed with some amount of gas. Usage Any liquid-producing reservoir will have a 'reservoir pressure': some level of energy or potential that will force fluid (liquid, gas or both) to areas of lower energy or potential.
Destructive distillation - Wiki. Destructive distillation of any particular inorganic feedstock produces only a small range of products as a rule, but destructive distillation of organic materials commonly produces very many compounds, often hundreds, though not all chemical products of any particular process are of commercial importance.
The molecules distilled off generally are smaller and more volatile than the feedstock molecules, but some reactions polymerise or condense small molecules into larger molecules, including heat-stable tarry substances and chars. Cracking into liquid and volatile compounds, and polymerisation or the formation of chars and solids may all occur in the same process, and any class of the products might be of commercial interest.
Currently the major industrial application of destructive distillation is to coal. Unconventional oil - Wiki. Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.
Oil industries and governments across the globe are investing in unconventional oil sources due to the increasing scarcity of conventional oil reserves. Sources of unconventional oil Oil Sands - Wiki. Tar sandstone from California, USA.
Oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. Oil sands reserves have only recently[when?] Been considered to be part of the world's oil reserves, as higher oil prices and new technology enable profitable extraction and processing. Dr. Daniel Fine of M.I.T. Speaks at Heritage about Oil Shale and Energy Pt2.