The Four Approaches To Psychopathology. Biochemistry and neuroanatomy Once again genes play a huge role in this theory of how mental disorders come about.
Genes determine a lot of functions in our body, they determine hormone and various neurotransmitter levels. How does this cause a mental disorder? Every Study you need to know for AS Psychology - Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multi-Store Model of Memory. Criticisms of Shiffrin & Atkinson's Multi-Store Model of Memory (1968) The main criticism of the model is that it is just too simple - if evidence is provided for the idea that our memory is split into different parts it doesn't necessarily mean that it is split into just two or three parts, it could be millions, and it is too optimistic to suggest that the brain would work so simply as to use only an acoustic semantic code and that each of these are restrained to one of two faculties of memory.
The KF Observation KF was a man who suffered from memory problems after a motorcycle accident. Surprisingly, it was his LTM that was fully functional - he could make new long lasting memories. Defining Abnormality. Context and Degree According to this definition, a person on a beach wearing very little clothing is considered normal but a person in a formal meeting wearing the same attire is considered abnormal and potentially mentally ill!
There is a fine line between abnormal and eccentric behavior and this is what people (especially psychologists) find difficult to judge. Stress - How Does It Work? In 1984 Kiecolt-Glazer et al conducted an experiment to see whether acute stressors had a negative effect on the immune system.
They took a blood sample of some medical students a month before their exam and the time around their exam. NK cell activity in the blood was measured in order to see how well their immune system was functioning. AS Psychology - Milgram's Experiments. Why Stanley Milgram?
Milgram's famous social influence experiments are vital to know for any respectable psychologist or psychology student. His experiments gave us an insight into the mentality of the human mind that experiments in the modern day just cannot do. Ethical reforms as a society have lead us to believe that such extreme experiments are not morally permissible, since participants risk being traumatised. There are 3 Main Types of Social Influence you need to Know About Compliance - this is where a person will change his ideas, beliefs or behaviour in order to conform to the majority. Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multi-Store Model of Memory (1968) Explanations For OCD. Operant Conditioning can also be used to explain the cause of OCD in the following way: Step 1.
An association is made between two things: coming into skin contact with someone else is associated with disease and illness. Step 2. Another act is thought up of in order to combat the anxiety from the first two things associated: the worry of catching a disease can be relieved by washing our hands. Step 3. Step 4. Evidence1. 2. Are there Known Gender Differences? Furnham and Farragher (2000) Demonstrated that sex-role stereotypes are commonly used in British television advertising. 200+ tv adverts were analysed and the sex of the central figure of the advert, his or her role, the product being sold and the sex of the voice over voice.
Roles - Men were most commonly shown as independent roles like professional workers and celebrities whilst women were shown to be presented in familial roles – mothers and homemakers. Locations – Men found themselves on holiday, relaxing in expensive ways or at the workplace whilst women found themselves at home. This suggests that men are incapable of running a home and raising children whilst women are less involved in working and spending money on leisurely activities Products – Men sold motoring products whilst women sold household and body products.
Character – Men were more likely to be presented as humorous. The Social Learning Theory Explanation for Gender Differences. Reinforcement and Gender Differences Of course, we won't just do as other people do just because they are attractive or popular - we need to have motives for acting.
When a little boy sees another little boy being rewarded for not crying when he gets injured, since he can identify (they're both boys and both young) with him, he'll be less inclined to show emotions when injured in the future - even though he himself wasn't rewarded at the time. Learning through watching others get rewarded is what social learning theorists call: vicarious reinforcement. The opposite, punishment, also applies and can explain how we can act so well in a situation, even though we never had first hand experience with it before. Although seemingly obvious, other approaches deny that we can in fact learn from other people and so deny the effect of this on gender differences e.g. the biological approach.
The Biological Explanation for Gender Differences. 48 Psychological Facts You Should Know About Yourself. What is the Behaviourist Approach? Thorndike first proved the validity of his 'Law of Effect' with experiments involving cats and puzzle boxes.
The cats were placed in locked boxes that could be opened by pulling a lever found inside. Initially, the cats would take a long time to find and use the latch. What is the Biological Approach? What is the Humanistic Approach? What is the Cognitive Approach? What is the Social Learning Approach? I Am Fishead: Are Corporate Leaders Psychopaths? It is a well-known fact that our society is structured like a pyramid.
The very few people at the top create conditions for the majority below. Who are these people? Can we blame them for the problems our society faces today? Guided by the saying "A fish rots from the head" we set out to follow that fishy odor. As Psychology: The Working Memory Model. AS AQA Psychology - Developmental Psychology - Studies You Need To Know. AQA Examine Each of the Four Presumptions of Situation Ethics.