Kronstadt rebellion. The Kronstadt rebellion (Russian: Кронштадтское восстание, tr.
Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) was a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in the later years of the Russian Civil War. Led by Stepan Petrichenko and consisting of Russian sailors, soldiers and civilians, the rebellion was one of the reasons for Vladimir Lenin's and the Communist Party's decision to loosen its control of the Russian economy by implementing the New Economic Policy (NEP). The rebellion originated in Kronstadt, a naval fortress on Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland that served as the base of the Russian Baltic Fleet and as a guardpost for the approaches to Petrograd, 55 kilometres (34 mi) away. Economic background By 1921 the Bolsheviks were winning the Russian Civil War and although foreign troops were beginning to withdraw, Bolshevik leaders continued to keep tight control of the economy through the policy of War Communism.
Diggers. The Diggers were a group of Protestant English agrarian socialists, begun by Gerrard Winstanley as True Levellers in 1649, who became known as Diggers, because of their attempts to farm on common land.
Their original name came from their belief in economic equality based upon a specific passage in the Book of Acts. The Diggers tried (by "leveling" real property) to reform the existing social order with an agrarian lifestyle based on their ideas for the creation of small egalitarian rural communities. They were one of a number of nonconformist dissenting groups that emerged around this time. Historical background Government through the King's Privy Council was replaced with a new body called the Council of State, which due to fundamental disagreements within a weakened Parliament was dominated by the Army. Anti-union violence. Anti-union violence may take the form of bullying of or aggression against union organisers or sympathisers in the workplace, or outside the workplace.
It may happen at the instigation of management, may be committed by agents hired or recruited by management, or by government bodies or others sympathetic to management's aims. Anti-union violence may occur with specific goals in mind, such as influencing a vote on unionization, eliminating an existing union, or in connection with a labor dispute or strike.
Violence against unions may be isolated, or may occur as part of a campaign that includes spying, intimidation, impersonation, disinformation, and sabotage. Violence in labor disputes may be the result of unreasonable polarization, or miscalculation. Baldwin–Felts Detective Agency. The Baldwin–Felts Detective Agency was a private detective agency in the United States.
Today it is most remembered for its violent confrontations with labor union members in such places as the Pocahantas Coal Field region of West Virginia, the Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike of 1912 in West Virginia, and in Ludlow, Colorado leading up to the Ludlow Massacre. Formation of the agency The agency was founded in the early 1890s by William Gibbony Baldwin as the Baldwin Detective Agency. Baldwin, the senior member of the firm, was a native of Tazewell County, Virginia. Mozilla Firefox. COINTELPRO memo proposing a plan to expose the pregnancy of actress Jean Seberg, a financial supporter of the Black Panther Party, hoping to "possibly cause her embarassment or tarnish her image with the general public".
Covert campaigns to publicly discredit activists and destroy their interpersonal relationships were a common tactic used by COINTELPRO agents. COINTELPRO (an acronym for COunter INTELligence PROgram) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveying, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations. National Security Agency operation Project MINARET targeted the personal communications of leading Americans, including Senators Frank Church and Howard Baker, civil rights leaders, including Dr.
Martin Luther King, journalists and athletes who criticized the Vietnam War. Mozilla Firefox. Teapot with Actresses, Vezzi porcelain factory, Venice, c. 1725.
The Vezzi brothers were involved in a series of incidents of industrial espionage. It was these actions that led to the secret of manufacturing Meissen porcelain becoming widely known. Industrial espionage, economic espionage or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security. Economic espionage is conducted or orchestrated by governments and is international in scope, while industrial or corporate espionage is more often national and occurs between companies or corporations.
Competitive intelligence and economic or industrial espionage "Competitive intelligence" levels out two scenarios of description as the legal and ethical activity of systematically gathering, analyzing and managing information on industrial competitors becomes beneficial. Mozilla Firefox. The William J.
Burns International Detective Agency was a private detective agency in the United States, which was operated by William J. Burns. Mozilla Firefox. Corporations Auxiliary Company was a corporation created to conduct "the administration of industrial espionage", essentially, providing labor spies who could propagandize, sabotage, or act as goons in exchange for payment.
In 1921 the Corporations Auxiliary Company was known to masquerade under a dozen different names, and specialized at electing its agents to union office in order to control or destroy unions. Business model In 1903, Corporations Auxiliary Company, which operated out of the Chamber of Commerce building in Cleveland, sent a letter signed by that company's vice president to the D.R.
Whiton Machine Company of New London, Connecticut, offering to supply labor spies for that company. Mozilla Firefox. The Sherman Service Company was based primarily in Eastern cities of the United States.
While it aimed to "render service in bettering industrial relationships", in 1919 its advisory director, R.V. Phillips, was indicted in Cook County, Illinois, on the criminal charge of trying to incite a riot, and for "fraudulent and malicious intent to unlawfully, willfully and with malice aforethought kill and murder divers [sic] large numbers of persons. "