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The Photographic Fascination With Twins : The Picture Show. One of the photos that made photographer Diane Arbus famous was Identical Twins, Roselle, New Jersey, 1967; it reverberated in The Shining and probably influenced Mary Ellen Mark's twin photos.

The Photographic Fascination With Twins : The Picture Show

It goes without saying that twins long have fascinated photographers — as well as scientists. How is it that identical twins with virtually identical DNA can be so different? Conversely, how is it that identical twins separated at birth can still have so much in common? An article in National Geographic's January issue explores the focus of recent research: How a third factor, beyond nature and nurture, might have a vital role in making us who we are. The term is epigenetics and the article explains it best. hide captionWhen Loretta (left) was diagnosed with breast cancer three years ago, Lorraine was in the doctor's office with her. Martin Schoeller/National Geographic When Loretta (left) was diagnosed with breast cancer three years ago, Lorraine was in the doctor's office with her.


Archie. Henri. A Map of Gender-Diverse Cultures. On nearly every continent, and for all of recorded history, thriving cultures have recognized, revered, and integrated more than two genders.

A Map of Gender-Diverse Cultures

Terms such as transgender and gay are strictly new constructs that assume three things: that there are only two sexes (male/female), as many as two sexualities (gay/straight), and only two genders (man/woman). Yet hundreds of distinct societies around the globe have their own long-established traditions for third, fourth, fifth, or more genders. Fred Martinez, for example, was not a boy who wanted to be a girl, but both a boy and a girl — an identity his Navajo culture recognized and revered as nádleehí.

Most Western societies have no direct correlation for this Native “two-spirit” tradition, nor for the many other communities without strict either/or conceptions of sex, sexuality, and gender. Worldwide, the sheer variety of gender expression is almost limitless. Refuting genetic determinism. Twin studies are pretty much useless.

Refuting genetic determinism

By Brian Palmer Updated Wednesday, Aug. 24, 2011, at 3:17 AM ET One of the main messages of science over the last couple of decades is that genes are destiny. With every new issue of a psychology journal, it seems that the portion of your life governed purely by your own free will gets smaller and smaller. Genes determine 50 percent of the likelihood that you will vote.

Half of your altruism. How do we know? Some call this approach beautiful in its simplicity, but critics say it's crude, potentially misleading, and based on an antiquated view of genetics. The idea of using twins to study the heritability of traits was the brainchild of the 19th-century British intellectual Sir Francis Galton. Galton's seminal 1875 study of twins was designed to prove that England's "chief men of genius" were the product more of good breeding than of good rearing. Fortunately for the future of our democracy, the study's conclusions far outpace its evidence. Clef. There are three types of clef used in modern music notation: F, C, and G.


Each type of clef assigns a different reference note to the line on which it is placed. Once one of these clefs has been placed on one of the lines of the stave, the other lines and spaces can be read in relation to it. In order to facilitate writing for different tessituras, any of the clefs may theoretically be placed on any of the lines of the stave. The further down on the stave a clef is placed, the higher the tessitura it is for; conversely, the higher up the clef, the lower the tessitura. Since there are five lines on the stave, and three clefs, it might seem that there would be fifteen possible clefs. Each of these clefs has a different name based on the tessitura for which it is best suited. Bass Clef Flower Tattoo by ~ChuckDraws on deviantART.


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