background preloader


Facebook Twitter

Extractions et phénomènes d'îles en français. Discontinuity (linguistics) Discontinuity. There were no articles with the name "".


Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern syntactic theories that are all based on the dependency relation and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière. Dependency grammars are distinct from phrase structure grammars (= constituency grammars), since dependency grammars lack phrasal nodes. Structure is determined by the relation between a word (a head) and its dependents. Dependency structures are flatter than constituency structures in part because they lack a finite verb phrase constituent, and they are thus well suited to languages with free word order, such as Czech and Turkish.

The notion of dependencies between grammatical units has existed since the earliest recorded grammars, e.g. Actant / Argument. Actant / Argument B.

Actant / Argument

Bortolussi Totum diem legebat / Legebat et id faciebat totum diem Totum librum legebat / *Legebat et id totum librum faciebat Une distinction supplémentaire est instaurée par H. Happ entre (a) actants obligatoires et (b) actants facultatifs : a- Patrem occidit Sex. Les analyses de Happ ont été rarement reprises dans les débats récents. La notion d’argument est empruntée à la logique classique. . - la distinction entre argument interne et argument externe : l’argument remplissant la fonction de sujet est un argument externe, parce qu’il n’appartient pas à la projection maximale du verbe, (dans la théorie générativiste le SN sujet appartient à une catégorie fonctionnelle d’un niveau supérieur) ; les autres arguments sont réalisés à l’intérieur du SV (Bortolussi 1991) ; - une hiérarchie entre les différents arguments : même à l’intérieur du SV, il existe des niveaux différents, ce que manifesteraient en latin les différents modes d’assignation des cas (Bortolussi 1987).

Syntactic relationships. Coordination (linguistics) Coordination is a very flexible mechanism of syntax.

Coordination (linguistics)

Any given lexical or phrasal category can be coordinated. The examples throughout this article employ the convention whereby the conjuncts of coordinate structures are marked using square brackets and bold script. The coordinate structure each time includes all the material that follows the left-most square bracket and precedes the right-most square bracket. The coordinator appears in normal script between the conjuncts. [Sarah] and [Xolani] went to town - N + N [The chicken] and [the rice] go well together. - NP + NP The president will [understand] and [agree]. - V + V The president will [understand the criticism] and [take action] - VP + VP Insects were [in], [on], and [under] the bed. - P + P + P [After the announcement] but [before the game], there was a celebration. - PP + PP Susan works [slowly] and [carefully]. - Adv + Adv Susan works [too slowly] and [overly carefully]. - AdvP + AdvP Fred and Bill and Sam came. a.

Parasitic gap. In the study of syntax, a parasitic gap is a construction in which one "gap" appears to be dependent on another "gap", that is, the one gap can appear only by virtue of the appearance of the other gap, hence the former is said to be "parasitic" on the latter, e.g.

Parasitic gap

Which explanation did you reject __1 without first really considering __2? While parasitic gaps are present in English and some related Germanic languages, e.g. Swedish, their appearance is much more restricted in other, closely related languages, e.g. German and the Romance languages.[1] An aspect of parasitic gaps that makes them particularly mysterious is the fact they usually appear inside islands to extraction.

Although the study of parasitic gaps got started in the late 1970s, no consensus has yet been reached about the best analysis.[2] Wh-movement. The name wh-movement stems from early Generative Grammar (1960s and 1970s) and was a reference to the transformational analysis of that day, whereby the wh-expression appeared in its canonical position at deep structure and then moved leftward out of that position to land in its derived position at the front of the sentence/clause at surface structure.[2] Many modern theories of syntax do not acknowledge movement in this sense, nonetheless the term wh-movement (or wh-fronting or wh-extraction) survives and is widely used to denote the observed phenomenon even by those theories that do not acknowledge movement.


Basic examples[edit] The following sentence pairs illustrate wh-movement. Each a-sentence has the canonical word order of a declarative sentence in English, and each b-sentence has experienced wh-movement, whereby the wh-word has been fronted in order to form a question. The relevant words are bolded: a. B. A. B. A. A. B. A.