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Digestate is the material remaining after the anaerobic digestion of a biodegradable feedstock. Anaerobic digestion produces two main products: digestate and biogas . Digestate is produced both by acidogenesis and methanogenesis and each has different characteristics. [ edit ] Acidogenic digestate Acidogenic digestate is fibrous and consists of structural plant matter including lignin and cellulose . Acidogenic digestate has high moisture retention properties.
Biomass is biological material from living, or recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials. [ 1 ] As a renewable energy source , biomass can either be used directly, or indirectly—once or converted into another type of energy product such as biofuel . Biomass can be converted to energy in three ways: thermal conversion , chemical conversion , and biochemical conversion . Historically, humans have harnessed biomass derived energy products since the time when people began burning wood to make fire. [ 2 ] In modern times, the term can be referred to in two meanings.
Miscanthus is a genus of about 15 species of perennial grasses native to subtropical and tropical regions of Africa and southern Asia , with one species ( M. sinensis ) extending north into temperate eastern Asia. Selected species [ edit ] Uses [ edit ] M. giganteus The sterile hybrid between M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus , Miscanthus giganteus , has been trialed as a biofuel in Europe since the early 1980s. It can grow to heights of more than 3.5 m in one growth season.
Panicum virgatum , commonly known as switchgrass , is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico . Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies , in native grass pastures , and naturalized along roadsides. It is used primarily for soil conservation , forage production, game cover, as an ornamental grass , and more recently as a biomass crop for ethanol and butanol , in phytoremediation projects, fiber, electricity, and heat production and for biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide . Other common names for switchgrass include tall panic grass, Wobsqua grass, blackbent, tall prairiegrass, wild redtop , thatchgrass, and Virginia switchgrass. [ edit ] Description Switchgrass is a hardy, deep-rooted, perennial rhizomatous grass that begins growth in late spring .
Hemp Hemp (from Old English hænep ) is a commonly used term for varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed. In many countries regulatory limits for concentrations of psychoactive drug compounds ( THC ) in hemp encourage the use of strains of the plant which are bred for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content or otherwise have the THC removed. [ 1 ] Hemp is refined into products like hemp seed foods, hemp oil, wax, resin, rope, cloth, pulp, and fuel. [ edit ] Uses Hemp grown for milk animal fodder Hemp is used for a wide variety of purposes including the manufacture of cordage of varying tensile strength , durable clothing and nutritional products.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae , native to most of the Northern Hemisphere . English names variously applied to different species include poplar ( / ˈ p ɒ p . l ər / ), aspen , and cottonwood . In the September 2006 issue of Science , it was announced that the Western Balsam Poplar ( P. trichocarpa ) was the first tree to have its full DNA code sequenced . [ 2 ]
Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses , one of which is raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants, either cultivated or as part of pasture. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. Species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of all continents in addition to the southwest Pacific and Australasia . Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe of Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugar cane ).
Sugarcane , or Sugar cane , is any of six to 37 species (depending on which taxonomic system is used) of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum , tribe Andropogoneae , native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia . They have stout jointed fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar , and measure two to six metres (6 to 19 feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed, and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids . Sugarcane belongs to the grass family (Poaceae), an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum and many forage crops. The main product of sugarcane is sucrose , which accumulates in the stalk internodes.
Willows , sallows , and osiers form the genus Salix , around 400 species [ 2 ] of deciduous trees and shrubs , found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere . Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier , and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow (from Old English sealh , related to the Latin word salix , willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow ( Salix herbacea ) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2 in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground.
Maize ( pron.: / ˈ m eɪ z / MAYZ ; Zea mays subsp. mays L , from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz ), known in some English-speaking countries as corn (meaning grain), is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times . The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels . Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch .
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels , such as bioethanol , or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat. Energy crops are generally categorized as woody or herbaceous plants; many of the latter are grasses ( Graminaceae ). Commercial energy crops are typically densely planted, high-yielding crop species where the energy crops will be burnt to generate power.
Eucalyptus ( pron.: / ˌ juː k ə ˈ l ɪ p t ə s / ) [ 2 ] L'Heritier 1789 [ 3 ] is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae . Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia . There are more than 700 species of eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, and a very small number are found in adjacent areas of New Guinea and Indonesia and one, Eucalyptus deglupta , ranges north to the Philippines .
Elaeis guineensis is a species of palm commonly called African oil palm or macaw-fat . [ 2 ] It is the principal source of palm oil . It is native to west and southwest Africa , occurring between Angola and Gambia ; the species name guineensis refers to one of its countries of origin, Guinea . The closely related American oil palm Elaeis oleifera is also used to a lesser extent to produce palm oil, and a more distantly related palm Attalea maripa is another oil-producing palm.